Prehistoric Mesopotamian And Egyptian Civilization Summary
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Chapter 1: Prehistoric, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian Civilization
The Earliest Cultures
• Culture is a group of people’s way of thinking, and is passed down and expressed through their art; art first appeared in the Paleolithic area with homo sapiens.
Paleolithic Period: o The paleolithic people were nomads; knowledge of their lives comes from the cave paintings they left behind. o Ritual and Religion: Their art appears to depict their rituals, such as hunting. o Sculpture: Very few of their sculptures are around today, but the most famous is the Woman of Willendorf, which is thought to have a connection to fertility.
Neolithic Period: o People began to farm and herd, which allowed permanent settlements to develop. o Wall Paintings: These mainly still depicted hunting, but began to change as the culture presumably changed. o Architecture: Very few architectural structures from this period have survived (none from before); the most famous is Stonehenge, constructed using the post and lintel system and thought to be something like a sundial.
Mesopotamia: The Cradle of Civilization
• Mesopotamian civilization began in the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and was where agriculture, the Bronze Age, and writing (cuneiform wedges to ideograms/combination of pictures, to phonetic writing) developed.
o The Sumerians founded Mesopotamian civilization; they had city-sates and polytheistic religions with anthropomorphic gods. o Architecture: Temples were