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Principal Component Analysis ( Pca )

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Principal component analysis (PCA) was attained on a dataset of 20 sites and 14 physico-chemical parameters to explore the relationships between major ions and trace metals. In this study, the PCA of analyzed data was applied to differentiate the contribution of natural sources to the chemical composition of groundwater in Jaypurhat district. This analysis also helps to find out information from datasets about sources of ion and factor controlling in groundwater quality. Factors with eigenvalues exceeding one were only considered for the study. Based on eigenvalues more than 1, seven PCs were extracted from groundwater quality parameters, which represented 90.69 % of total variance in the study area. A scree plot was used to demonstrate a…show more content…
The high positive score of F- might be originated from dissolution of fluro-pyrites, fluorite, various silicate bearing minerals. However, the agricultural fertilizer is also the source of F- in the groundwater (Hem, 1991). Furthermore, F- indicated moderate positive correlation with HCO3-. This correlation demonstrated that both F- and HCO3- are believed to be geogenic source rather than anthropogenic activities. The PC4 denoted 13.57 % of total variance in groundwater quality with strong positive loading on pH, I- and HCO3-, showing the alkalinity controlled process in groundwater. The high value of pH may have led to be dissolution of carbonate and hydroxide mineral in groundwater. The elevated value of HCO3- in the groundwater indicates intense mineral weathering, which favors a mineral dissolution (Stumm and Morgan, 1996). In addition to this, high HCO3- value may be caused by long-term irrigation practices in the study area that circulate the water in the soil/weathered zone. The PC5 accounted for 12.16 % of variance in groundwater quality. A high positive loading was depicted on Na+ and SO42- in S-14, S-16 and S19-20 sample locations. The high values of Na+, SO42- ions are mainly anthropogenic sources like as the domestic wastes, leakage of septic tanks and agro-chemicals (Todd, 1980;
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