Procedures For Establishing Validity And Reliability. For

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Procedures for Establishing Validity and Reliability
For the Denison organizational culture survey instrument to be considered a valid instrument, that instrument “must first pass a psychometric test to make certain that individual respondents can discern the underlying structure proposed by the theory” (Denison, Nieminen, & Kotrba, 2014, p. 27). Then, “the respondents within each…must show a high level of agreement in order to claim that organizational characteristics are being measured” (Denison, Nieminen, & Kotrba, 2014, p. 27). As well as “the organizational level characteristics must show a close link to the organizational level outcomes suggested by the model or in the case of diagnostic instruments, organizational effectiveness”
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34). According to Denison (1995), eight items on the survey showed “good convergent and discriminant validity for the four traits, presented in two dimensions” (p. 217).
To test validity and reliability, “extensive psychometric testing” (Casida, 2008, p. 109), was “conducted by Cho (2000) using a sample of 36,542 raters from diverse organizations” (Casida, 2008, p. 109), and according to the study, by Cho (2000) “coefficient alphas for the twelve indexes ranged from .70 to .85 indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency” (p. 13). Casida (2008) revealed “in Cho’s (2000) work, exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic results such as a confirmatory factor index (CFI) of 0.99, suggest a robust construct validity of DOCS scales and items” (p. 109). In the survey, “item-total correlations exceeded .50 for over two-thirds of the 60 items in the survey” (Denison, Nieminen, & Kotrba, 2014, p. 29).
Threats to Internal Validity
The four traits of the Denison organizational culture survey “are summary characteristics of an organization 's culture and the processes by which culture may have an impact on effectiveness” (Denison & Mishra 1995 220). Denison, Haaland, & Goelzer (2004) opined “one of the most difficult challenges for the field of international management is the application of theories and models developed in one
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