Major depression is a commonly diagnosed psychological disorder affecting individuals’ ability to feel happiness and peace of mind. Those who suffer experience negative emotions, lack of motivation, changes in behaviour and dysfunctional cognitive symptoms. Depression is classified by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as five of more of the listed symptoms present persistently over the same two weeks. One of these symptoms must be depressed mood or loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities. Depression causes disruption to typical daily life such as inability to maintain friendships and jobs. Other symptoms outlined by the DSM-5 include; insomnia, fatigue and recurrent thoughts of death. There is much debate over what exactly causes depression. Biological explanations question hereditary and neurotransmitter factors. While psychological theories include the cognitive ideas of Beck’s negative triad and hopelessness theory. This essay will focus on the ways in which psychological and biological explanations contrast and how their theories can overlap to better understand depression. The biological theory of depression focusing on genetics argues that shared DNA is the cause of depression so the more genes shared with a depressed family member, the more an individual’s likelihood to develop depression. Whereas psychological theories of depression, such as the cognitive negative schema, focus on how individuals perceive
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One of the most common psychiatric disorders is known as clinical depression and affects anywhere between 3% and 13% of the population with some form of depressive symptoms affecting as much as 20% of the adult population at some point in their lives (Amenson & Lewinson, 1981; Kessler et al., 1994; Oliver & Simmons, 1985, as cited in Antonuccio, Danton, & DeNelsky, p. 574). The concept of ‘harmful dysfunction’ advanced by Horwitz and Wakefield (2007) describes two key components of clinical depression: a dysfunctional mechanism and the dysfunction being harmful to the individual (as cited in, Parker & Paterson, p.405). This paper explores the following questions: what does research indicate about clinical depression and what are the implications for treatment? Reviews are presented in regards to the emergence of depression and psychotherapy versus medication to treat clinical depression. Considerations are briefly discussed and the research paper will conclude with an interpretation of the critical points.
Depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors (“Depression: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments” 2015). Researchers are becoming increasingly aware that depression runs in families (Kam,2009) meaning that certain genes may make people prone to depression suggesting a biological vulnerability. The biological factors that have some effect on the hereditary and biological influences of depression are the genes, hormones, and brain chemicals.
Depression is a clinical condition associated with the normal emotions of bereavement and sadness. However, this condition does not pass on when the external causes of these emotions dissolve and is usually inconsistent to their cause. In essence, the classic severe conditions of depression have not been attributed to external precipitating cause. One of the most common conditions of depression is Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), which is a psychiatric condition that impairs moods, behavioral patterns, and thoughts for a protracted duration. This psychiatric illness tends to impair the patient’s social functioning and quality of life due to its impacts on cognitive functioning. Some of the most common symptoms of the condition include difficulty in concentration, weight change, minimal interest in pleasure, high rate of suicide, and physical impairment. The severity of this disease was evident in the year 2000 when the World Health Organization ranked it as the fourth cause of disability and premature death across the globe.
Depression is a severe illness the makes a person feel insecure, worthless. and daily tasks become difficult. They are different types of depression because According to Medical News Today states “depression is likely to be caused by a complex combination of factors, genetic, environmental, and psychological”. The probability is significant with genetics. At times an individual may become substantially depressed that they believe their life achievements seem futile. Depression is a
Antidepressant medication is the most popular treatment for depression. Studies have suggested that cognitive therapy of depression might have a significant advantage over medication in preventing relapses or recurrences (Robinson, 2005). Despite the alarming prevalence of depression in society, there is yet no completely adequate explanation as to how or why it occurs (Robinson, 2005). The three major etiological models for understanding depression are cognitive models (based on the work of Beck & Ellis), biological models that link depression to variance in biochemistry (Robinson, 2005), and diathesis-stress models that view depression as the result of a complex interaction of contextual factors and intra-individual factors (Robinson, 2005). There is some evidence to suggest that once treatment-to-remission-from-depression is terminated that pharmacologically treated patients were twice as likely to relapse than patients treated with cognitive therapy (Miller, 1989). Many studies have reported evidence of negative cognitive patterns among depressed individuals. A self-deprecating style, negative attitudes toward the future and negative automatic thoughts frequently are associated with depression (Miller, 1989).
One of them can be biological, which includes neurotransmitters, genes, and the brain structure. Although genes may play an important role in depression, but they play a role alongside with life experiences. With genes playing a role, the genetic makeup of a person could make them more likely to develop depression. Some biological factors do not determine if someone will develop depression, but if the person has the factor and lives in an unhealthy environment he or she will be more likely to develop it. A person who may have the biological factors but lives in a healthy environment is less likely to develop depression. Someone who is experiencing depression may show less brain activity in the prefrontal cortex. The neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine give off a joyful feeling when they are released. People who suffer from depression may not have enough receptors for those neurotransmitters, making them feel
As research on major depression is ever expanding and developing, it is pivotal to critically analyse the validity of studies in this area. The main focus of researchers over time has been centered on discovering ways to implement effective treatments and determining preventative measures. However, more importantly identifying key theories behind why major depression occurs in the first place in this assignment will help to further understand this common mental illness and how certain medications can either improve or worsen a person’s condition.
Research has determined that depression is identified by an individual's failure to concentrate, biases seem to be implying that this comes from a negative set of memories and experiences that make up a persons’ beliefs. This mind set results in a deeply thoughtful style described by a lack of logical thinking which leads to depressed emotions and behaviours. The neurobiology behind depression shows that changes in the brain system are commonly linked to this theoretical way of thinking. This similarity proves the cognitive process behind the theory of depression and it also shows the noticeable features of a depressed brain described by neurobiologists
Depression is a very serious illness and very common in todays society. However, some people do not even realize that they are suffering from depression, even though it is obvious to others. There are several different types of depression, “major depression, manic-depressive disorder, dysthymia, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder” (Burke, 2008). My focus will be major depression, a continuous feeling of sorrow and despair, uncontrollable episodes of crying for no apparent reason, and loss of physical and or emotional interest to participate in any normal day to day routine (Burke, 2008). Depression affects everyone differently, in some cases depression can appear over night, whereas in other cases depression can grow over a long period of time and occur sparingly as episodes. An episode involves the individual to experience a “depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities for a period of at least two weeks” (“Affective Disorders”, 2013). Major depression may be triggered by almost anything. Some of the more common causes of major depression are:
Sometimes developing healthy relationships can cause depression. It’s a struggle for depressed people to maintain emotional contact white others because it is a consequence that comes along with trying it out. A lot of the time there are depressed people who feel dependent on relationships with others. But if the relationship is threatened or loss it can make the depressed person feel helpless and weak. Depression can make people fear abandonment and they struggle to keep close contact with people. This fear of abandonment can be bad for relationships because people might not like to be depended on all the time and that can turn people away from being friends with the depressed person. Then that can be hard for the depressed
Depression is a normal emotional reaction to perceived loss and hopelessness (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002). There are a number of different types of depression such as chronic depression, manic depression and the primary focus of this essay Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). MDD is a clinical depression, which is more chronic and more severe compared to other types of depression. It significantly disrupts the individual’s ability to meet the normal demands of life. According to many clinicians, clinical depression should be considered as a medical illness in need of medical intervention. Other mental health professionals believe this is an overstatement of the role of physiology and the
People of all ages, backgrounds, and walks of life have felt depressed and unhappy at some time in their lives. These periods of sadness usually pass after a short time, but for some people, this feeling can remain for weeks, months, and even years. (1) This prolonged state of unhappiness is called major (or clinical) depression and is characterized by a persistent sad or "empty" mood, loss of interest in favorite activities, difficulty concentrating, and many other symptoms. It is not simply a mental state but an illness that interferes with the way people feel, function, and think.(2)
Today, depression ranks as one of the biggest health problems. It was shown that 6.7 percent of Americans above 18, which is around 15 million people, suffer from depression in 2005 and it is still growing (DBSA). Although there have been many studies in the past and today about depression, it is still considered mysterious and have many questions yet to be answered such as “Is depression a type of reaction, or is it a disease?” and “Is depression caused primarily by psychological stress and conflict, or is it related primarily to a biological derangement?” (Beck). People have not found an universal answer to these many mysterious questions, yet they all agree that depression is important and serious. Among all the disease, depression has caused the most human suffering. Depression, after schizophrenia, has the most admissions to mental hospitals in the U.S. and is five times more prevalent than schizophrenia outside hospitals (Beck). Aaron T. Beck, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine who is regarded as the ‘Father of Cognitive Therapy’, defines depression in terms of the following attributes:
Depression is one of the common and severe major depressive disorder that affects the way of feeling, thinking and behaving. Depression can lead to a range of emotional and physical difficulties which may result in a person’s capability to function at work and home because of the feelings of sadness and loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. However, between 80 percent and 90 percent of people gain some relief from their depression symptoms after treatment. Therefore, depression is among the most treatable mental disorders. The development and maintenance of depression can be explained by the critical cognitive theories from Beck’s cognitive model of depression (1976). Furthermore, one of the most effective methods for treating depression has been created by this model. The central constructs within Beck’s model (1976) are schemas, negative, dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive distortions, the cognitive triad, and