Psychological Perspectives of Human Growth and Development Essay

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Psychological Perspectives of Human Growth and Development The following will analyse the Psychodynamic theory founded by Sigmund Freud. It will focus on the components of the ‘mind’ including the Conscious, the pre-conscious proper and the Unconscious. Examining his structure of Personality with reference to The’ Id’, ‘Ego’ and ‘Super-ego’. It will discuss Freud’s proposal of stages within his ‘psychosexual development’. It will then focus on Carl Rogers Humanistic theory, explaining his concept of the ‘Actualizing tendency’ and incorporating his creations of ‘Self concept’, the ‘Organismic self’ and the ‘Ideal self’. As a contribution to Roger’s work also highlighting Abraham Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of needs’. Freud and Rogers will then…show more content…
It holds no morals and seeks instant gratification containing sexual or aggressive impulses. ‘’a cauldron full of seething excitations…it is filled with energy … but… has no organisation… only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of instinctional needs subject to observance of the pleasure principle’’ (Freud, New introductory lectures in psychoanalysis, 1933, p. 73) Within the id lies the Eros (life or pleasure drive) and Thanatos (death instincts). Eros ‘’helps the child to survive, it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, sex and the fulfilment of other bodily needs’’ In contrast Freud believed ‘’Destructive acts such as arson, fist fights, murder, war and even masochism were outward expressions of the death instincts’’ (R.Shaffer, 1946, p. 43) The Ego Acts as ‘mediator’ between the Id and the super-ego. It is the rational part governed by the ‘reality principle’. Freud Created ‘defence mechanisms’ in an attempt to protect the ‘ego’ from constant threat from the ‘super-ego’. These include ‘Repression’ meaning re-directing negative thoughts to the ‘Unconscious‘. As well as Projection’ this being the shifting of blame or thoughts and feelings onto someone or something less intimidating. ‘’ The idea of psychological defence itself was not problematic; it was a
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