Psychology Midterm Study Guide

1948 WordsOct 12, 20118 Pages
Psychology Study Guide Chapter 1: Different types of psychologists (clinical, forensic, social, health, industrial etc) • Clinical: aim to reduce psychological distress. Anxiety, depression, relationship problems, addictions and relationships. • Forensic: applying theory to criminal investigations, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behavior, and the treatment of criminals. • Social: The study of relations between people and groups. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors altered by others. typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations • Health: relatively new. Principles are used to help changes about people’s attitudes about health and illness.…show more content…
Stimulus Discrimination • The tendency of a CR to be weaker or not occur to the CSs that are dissimilar to the original CS or that have undergone extinction. Classical conditioning • Establishing a learned association between two stimuli. (Pavlov and dogs) Operant Conditioning • The imposition of a contingencies, either deliberate or natural. (reinforcer and punisher) Little Albert Experiment • Watson and Rayner 1920 • When presented with a white rat, a disturbing noise. Became afraid of other white colored things (white dogs, fur coats, santa claus) Negative reinforcement • Something unpleasant is moved away or doesn’t happen when the desired behavior is performed. Chapter 5: Acoustic encoding • The process of remembering and comprehending something that you hear. Repetition of words or putting information into a song or rhythm uses acoustic encoding. Semantic encoding • A specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic encoding. Iconic encoding • Very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures. Stored for shorter periods of time than echoic memories. Memory retrieval • The process of extracting knowledge fro long term memory. Curve of forgetting • The
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