Question 3. (A) Managers In Organizations Are Expected

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Question 3
(a) Managers in organizations are expected to have a reasonable degree of leadership ability. Explain what leadership is? Comment and elaborate on the bases of leadership power. [10 marks]

Leadership is ability to influence others to perform tasks (Benowitz, A.E. 2001). It is the function or activity that an individual performs. This definition implies that leadership is an influential process. In other words leadership is the notion that leaders are individuals who facilitate the movement of a group of people toward a common or shared goal. Therefore, leadership is an important part of management and it produces change in the operation of an organisation.
Effective leaders develop and use power or the ability to influence
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For instance, the supervisor may provide employees with time off when they meet an objective she sets for a project.
Coercive power is conveyed through fear of losing one’s job, being demoted, receiving a poor performance review, having prime projects taken away, etc. Managers have coercive power when they have the right to fire or demote employees, criticize them, withhold pay increases, give reprimands, make negative entries in employee files, and many other actions. This power is gotten through threatening others or from the authority to punish or to recommend punishment. For example this power is used in the situations such as where the Executive Director threatens his managers to be demoted for failure to meet their set targets.
Expert power comes from one’s experiences, skills or knowledge. As we gain experience in particular areas, and become thought leaders in those areas, we begin to gather expert power that can be utilized to get others to help us meet our goals. For example, the Project Manager who is an expert at solving particularly challenging problems to ensure a project stays on track.
Referent power comes from being trusted and respected. We can gain referent power when others trust what we do and respect us for how we handle situations. For example, the Human Resource Associate who is known for ensuring employees are treated fairly and coming to the rescue of those who are not.

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