Random Amplification Of Polymorphic Dna Research Paper
1008 WordsNov 19, 20175 Pages
Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers are analyzed by using PCR to amplify the segments of nuclear DNA. The use of a single primer (usually 8–10 bp long) that attaches to both strands of DNA and low annealing temperatures increases the likeli¬hood of amplifying multiple regions representing a particular locus (Welsh and McClelland, 1990). Although RAPD is a simple and inexpensive technique its major limitation is the inability to differentiate between homozygote and heterozygote; this marker is therefore regarded as a dominant type. This technique is based on the use of short, arbitrary primers in PCR reaction and can be used to produce relatively detailed and complex DNA profiles…show more content…
Presumably primer sites are randomly distributed along the target genome, and flank both conserved and highly variable regions. Wide variation in band intensity can be shown to be reproducible between experiments, which could be the result of multiple copies of the amplified regions in the template or the efficiency with which particular regions are amplified (Bardakci, 2001). The polymorphic bands obtained from a RAPD can also be cloned for further analysis. The major advantage of RAPD includes that, it does not require pre-sequencing of DNA (Nandani and Thakur, 2014). RAPD-PCR fingerprints have been successfully used in defining genetic diversity among different species (Lynch and Milligan, 1994). For example, the RAPD method was used to generate specific fingerprint patterns of ten different species: including wild boar, pig, horse, buffalo, beef, venison, dog, cat, rabbit, and kangaroo (Koh et al., 1996). RAPD markers have several obvious features as summarized here as:
1) no prior sequence knowledge is necessary for designing the specific primers, which can then be used in different templates (Weising et al., 2005).
2) The amount of DNA required is very small because it will be amplified by PCR.
3) RAPDs are simple, quick, and cost effective compared to RFLP (Koller et al., 1993).
Parejo et al., (2002) suggested that RAPD is an important aid in planning the most adequate mating strategy to maintain the genetic diversity and to