Reflective Practice Theoretical Essay
Rolfe (2011) state that reflection is a mental process which include thinking, feeling, imagining and learning about what was happening in the past and which could be considered as a personal experience. Reflection is a continuous debate on what might have happened differently and if this could affect differently the present and the future regarding the outcome if is positive or negative. Experience underpin the process of reflection.
According to Nursing & Midwifery Council Code NMC (2015) “Gather and reflect on feedback from a variety of sources, using it to improve your practice and performance” can be done by putting together skills, knowledge and experience in the benefit of the patient. There are number of tools that can be used in nursing to reflect and these tools are: models of reflection, mind maps, learning journals, critical incidents and critical friends and conversations with a mentor or a tutor.
As well as the NMC, the NHS has set The Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) as a requirement in order to meet the standards regarding delivering a high level of quality for the services provided; this imply personal development plan and review , knowledge and skills.
Bulman (2008) believes that reflection is a review over own experience passed through several phases namely description, analyse and evaluation so that finally to offer a better approach for future practice. Reflection involves not only
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Kim & Loretta (2003), stated that Atkinson & Murphy (1993) identified the key skills needed for reflection as ‘self awareness, the ability to recollect and describe accurately key aspect of the situation, critical analysis of the situation and synthesis of new knowledge gained with the previous knowledge, in order to develop a new perspective’. I will discuss,
Reflection is a process of exploring and examining ourselves, our perspectives, attributes, experiences and actions / interactions. It helps us gain insight and see how to move forward (Nursing Times 2018). I believe reflection is particularly important when it comes to Nursing, as medicine is constantly changing/ improving and us ourselves medical professionals must adapt with the changes in medicine. I find that reflection is extremely useful in doing this as we can look over procedures or experiences that we have had, how that made us feel, whether we would change anything, then in the future we can see the changes that may have been made, whether this has changed our feelings and opinions on medical practice.
This essay will demonstrate an understanding of the theory of reflective practice within healthcare and nursing. Furthermore, the essay will identify and analyse the different models of reflective practice, the effectiveness of the models and how healthcare professionals can apply this within their profession. Also, the barriers that may prevent a healthcare professional from reflecting will be discussed in this essay and how it will impact the quality of care delivered to patients.
Reflection is defined by Howatson-Jones (2013), as “a way of examining your experience in order to look for the possibility of other explanations and alternative approaches to doing things” (p. 6). The practice of reflection is important for numerous reasons. As stated by Hargreaves and Page (2013), reflections promote good practice and in the occurrence of a difficult or challenging situation, they can help to identify where things went wrong and how to improve the outcome for future incidents. As identified by Jasper, Rosser and Mooney (2013), reflection offers benefits to both the patient and the practitioner. Practitioners are more likely to avoid routine practice, continuously develop their knowledge and identify faults to improve on. Patients are more likely to receive higher standards of safety and better quality of care
This reflection is based upon the 360 degree tool feedback I have received from three anonymous service users, my practice mentor (a fully qualified Health visitor) and myself (a first year student nurse). All this information is then returned to the individual can be used to improve self-learning by reflecting on the responses given and focusing on any areas that can be developed or improved.
Effective reflection helps the practitioner to see the situation from an outsider's perspective, so that they can develop a better way to respond to a similar scenario in the future. Reflection is meant to achieve a change in practice, rather than simply repeating the same mistakes (Schon, 1983). Many different models exist for structuring the reflective process. Regardless of the framework used, the reflection models are meant to accomplish three things. They are supposed to promote reflecting on events, self-evaluation and analysis, and a plan to change actions in the future. This Reflective essay will utilize Driscoll's 'The What?' model as its structure (Driscoll, 1994). This model has three components"
Reflection is a process of reviewing and thinking critically about activities and how this affects learning of student’s. It is not just descriptions of what happened during the lesson; it’s to
Reflective practice is often defined as when practitioners engage in a continuous cycle of self observation and self evaluation in order to understand their own actions and reactions they prompt in themselves and in learners (Brookfield, 1995; Thiel, 1999). The goal is not necessarily to address a specific problem or question defined at the outset, as in practitioner research but to observe and refine practice in general on an ongoing basis. (Cunningham 2001). Reflection on practice is a key skill for nurses. Engaging in regular reflection allows practitioners to manage the personal and professional impact of addressing their patients’ fundamental health and wellbeing needs daily (Oelofsen, 2012)
The term “reflection” directly refers to one’s own ability for serious thought or consideration regarding events, which have occurred in the past. Professional bodies and organisations utilise reflective practice within continuous professional development as an effective tool to evoke critical thoughts regarding their own actions. This analysis of one’s own
Reflective practice in nursing is considered an important aspect to nursing. Durgahee ( 1997) defines reflective practice as a process of learning and teaching professional maturity through the critical analysis of experience, whilst John ( 2009) up to date explanation of reflection is learning through our everyday experience towards realising one vision of desirable practice as a lived reality.
In recent years, reflection and reflective practice have become well-known term with in the health care arena. They are words that have been debated and discussed with in the health care setting (Tony and Sue 2006). Reflective practice is essential for nurses, as nurses are responsible for providing care to the best of their ability to patients and their families (NMC, 2008). Reid (1993) states reflection is a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning about practice. Johns (1995) notes that reflection enables practitioners to assess, understand and learn through their experience. Reflective practice, therefore, offers nurses an opportunity to review their decisions and
Schon (1987) identified two types of reflection that could be applied in the nursing practice. He described “refection-on-action” that involves assessing and analyzing an action while performing the action and “reflection-in-action” which involves going back to previous actions and situations and analyzing them to gain new insights and to improve the nursing practice (Schon 1987). Schon further argued that for reflection to take place there should be a commitment to action as there is to results. Coined in 1970, Borton’s theory on the other hand, proposes the use of three stem questions in the reflective practice (Borton, 1970). These questions were originally proposed by John Driscoll who described the experiential learning cycle (Driscoll, 1994) where practitioners are able to learn from their experiences to improve their practice. According to Driscoll (1970) these trigger questions could be used to complete the experiential learning cycle leading to a practitioner gaining new information and insights on how to improve their practice (Driscoll, 1994). The importance of Driscoll’s three stem questions in improving practice reflection among nurses cannot be underestimated. By answering these stem questions, nurses develop a better insight into the situation regarding how and why it occurred and identifies the next courses of action in case the situation recurs.
Personal reflection in nursing is essential and critical as it allows for continuous development and re-assessment of skills whilst working within a health care setting (Reflective practice: a tool to enhance professional practice 2011, pp.1-3). Personal reflection is important as reflective practice allows for the ability for one to reflect and examine their actions and experiences which overall will increase and enhance their clinical knowledge, as well as developing and improving their practice (Reflective practice: a tool to
Reflection is an everyday process and is very personal matter. Jasper (2003) suggests that reflection is one of the key ways in which we can learn from our experiences. Reflective practice can be defined as process of making sense of events, situations and actions that occur in the workplace (Oelofsen, 2012).
A load of research has been done on learning and reflective practice and its effectiveness on the practitioners and one of the first people to research reflective Practice was Donald Schon in his book “The Reflective Practitioner” in 1983. Schon was an influential writer on reflection and had two main ways of identifying reflection and they were reflection in action and reflection on action.