Safety Management System ( Sms )

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(1) Introduction
Safety Management System (SMS) can be defined as “a systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures” (Safety Management Manual, 2013). It is designed to identify hazards, analysing and collecting data and manage safety risks encountered during the delivery of its services (Safety Management Manual, 2013).
According to Safety Management Manual (2013), the fundamental Safety Management System (SMS) framework consists of four main components and twelve sub elements. These are the 4 components and 12 sub-elements:
i) Safety policy and objectives
-Management commitments and responsibilities
-Safety accountabilities
-Appointment of key safety personnel
-Coordination of emergency response planning
-SMS documentation ii) Safety risk management
-Hazard identification
-Risk assessment and mitigation iii) Safety assurance
-Safety performance monitoring and measurement
-The management of change
-Continuous improvement of the SMS

iv) Safety promotion
-Training and education
-Safety communication

(2) Analysis Methodology
The Swiss Cheese Model of accident causation illustrates the occurrence of catastrophic system failures. In the model, there are holes in each cheese and it represents a safety barrier to a particular hazard. According to the Swiss cheese model (Safety Management Manual, 2013), some of holes in defences are due to active failures, however, some of other holes in the

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