Discussion Details about the disorder Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling Those that are recognized increase the possibility only by extremely small quantities. Consequently, these “genome scans” are improbable to offer a whole image of a person’s danger for acquiring a mental disorder like schizophrenia. Additionally, it possibly endures more than genes to instigate the disorder (Stefansson, Ophoff, Steinberg, Andreassen, Cichon, Rujescu, & Kahn, 2009). Experts reflect communications amongst genes and the environment are essential for schizophrenia to grow. Several environmental issues might be comprised, such as revelation to viruses or malnourishment before birth, difficulties during birth, and other not yet recognized psychosocial issues.
Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder that affects the cognitive functions of an individual. The cause of this illness is unknown, but there are several theories of how an individual may acquire schizophrenia. Because there are many symptoms of the disease and because the symptoms can vary quite dramatically among several individuals and even within the same individual over time, the diagnosis of schizophrenia can be quite difficult.
Ethical issues in schizophrenia patients Introduction Schizophrenia is a brain disease. Many studies have been conducted regarding the brain localization of schizophrenia. One study established that schizophrenia is characterized by significant loss in the grey matter of the brain. The loss was detected to be up to 25% in some areas and the damage was seen to begin at the parietal (outer) regions of the brain then spreading to the rest of the regions of the brain over a period of about five years ADDIN EN.CITE Rajagopalan1998923(Rajagopalan, MacBeth, & Varma, 1998)92392317Rajagopalan, MMacBeth, RVarma, SLXXY chromosome anomaly and schizophreniaAmerican Journal Medical GeneticsAmerican Journal Medical Genetics64-65811998( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_9" o "Rajagopalan, 1998 #923" Rajagopalan, MacBeth, & Varma, 1998). Another study showed that patients who had the worst loss of brain tissue also exhibited the worst symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, psychotic and bizarre thoughts, hearing voices, depression and delusion ADDIN EN.CITE Conklin2002797(Conklin & Iacono, 2002)79779717Conklin, Heather M.Iacono, William G.Schizophrenia: A Neurodevelopmental PerspectiveCurrent Directions in Psychological ScienceCurrent Directions in Psychological Science33-371112002Sage Publications, Inc. on behalf of Association for Psychological Science09637214http://www.jstor.org/stable/20182759( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_2" o "Conklin, 2002 #797" Conklin & Iacono, 2002).
Describe and evaluate biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by distorted thinking, impaired emotional responses, poor interpersonal skills and a distortion of reality. It is the most common of psychotic disorders that, in most countries around the world, affects around 1 per cent of the population. In terms of explanations for the disorder, two central types of explanations arise – psychological explanations and biological explanations. Whereas psychological explanations tend to focus on cognitive, emotional and environmental factors that may cause the disorder, biological explanations tend to focus on genetic, biochemical and neuro-anatomical factors as the cause of the
Research by Johnstone in 1994, explained the biological approach of interventions, explanation and treating of schizophrenia patients (Hansell & Damour, 2005). In studies of Fisher in 2001, discoveries that the brain had more dopamine receptors know as B_2 receptors in a person suffering from schizophrenia, than a non-suffer (Hansell & Damour, 2005). Biological findings of schizophrenia suggest that a genetic factor was hereditary, but not conclusive because the element of environment does make a difference (Hansell & Damour, 2005).
Over the last few decades Schizophrenia has become embedded in mainstream vernacular as any behavior or emotional response that is out of touch with reality. However even with its popularity heightened through movies and headline news stories, schizophrenia is still one of the most enigmatic and least understood disorders of
The debate of whether schizophrenia is a brain disorder has been a controversial issue for decades. Most researchers consider schizophrenia a brain disorder for numerous reasons. The evidence revolves around the symptoms that can impact a patient biologically, psychologically, and socially. Some speculations suggest that schizophrenia begins in the womb which also contributes to the evidence towards schizophrenia being a brain disorder.
Schizophrenia can be a crippling disorder, and only in the last several decades have scientist labeled it as a brain disorder. Scientists have also been researching to try and determine if schizophrenia starts in the womb. There are several factors that give evidence that schizophrenia is a brain disorder, including: enlarged ventricles in the brain, increases in the size of sulci, and decreases in some different lobes of the brain. There is also some evidence that schizophrenia starts in the womb based on the increase of its likeness, the more similar different genomes are.
Understanding Schizophrenia Many people today believe they are experts on schizophrenia due to hollywood titles such as 1948 blockbuster The Snake Pit or the 2001 hit A Beautiful Mind. However, many people do not know the cause, the symptoms, or the experiences people who suffer from schizophrenia face. Schizophrenia is
Experts think that schizophrenia is caused by many contributing factors according to the NIMH and Berstein. Although there is a lot about schizophrenia that experts may not know, they do know that it is a genetic disease hat runs in families. According to the NIMH, those affected individuals are highly likely to have a close relative such as a mother, father, sibling, or grandparent with the disorder. According to Tischauser, a person with one parent who has the disease is ten times more likely to develop schizophrenia than a member of the general public. Thirty-nine percent of people who have both parents afflicted with the disease also develop schizophrenia. Schizophrenia majorly affects a person’s brain. The disorder disrupts the way that the brain cells function and communicate with each other. In the affected persons’ brain, the neurotransmitters that carry signals from one cell in the brain to the other may be abnormal or the transmitter may be malfunctioning (Bernstein). It is believed that several genes are associated with an increased risk of having schizophrenia. No single gene causes schizophrenia by itself. In fact, the genetic differences may include up to hundreds of different genes and the disruption of brain development. Bernstein states that we do know that there is an affected gene that is key to making important chemicals for the brain. Also, experts say that the environment is a factor in people with schizophrenia. For example, some environmental factors may include exposure to viruses, malnutrition before birth, problems during birth and other not yet known psychological factors. According to Anushree Bose, other factors that contribute to having schizophrenia include an imbalance of brain chemistry and different structures of the brain (7). The NIMH also adds that a person’s brain who has schizophrenia will look similar to a healthy person’s brain, but only in small ways. They
A third example of a neurological cause of schizophrenia is what is known as the dopamine hypothesis. This hypothesis is the idea that irregular levels of dopamine, in the case of schizophrenia, high levels of dopamine, are linked to some of the symptoms of schizophrenia (Eagleman & Downer, 539). This idea was thought of because of the findings on the use of amphetamines causing a rise in dopamine in the brain as well as the rise of the symptoms of schizophrenia (Seeman & Lee, 1975)( Eagleman & Downer, 538).
Biological theorists believe that individuals may have a genetic predisposition for the schizophrenia if a close family member has been diagnosed with the disorder. Stress during adolescent years seems to provoke the disorder among individuals who have a family history of the disorder. In addition, this theory suggests biochemical abnormalities related to the dopamine neurotransmitters may also contribute to the illness as the brains neurotransmission of the dopamine is too frequent in occurrence (Comer, 2005). CAT and MRI scans have also indicated that abnormal brain structuring may also play a role in the development of schizophrenia due to a common occurrence of enlarged ventricles within schizophrenia sufferers (Comer, 2005). Various parts of the brain may not develop for function properly which seems lead to Type II schizophrenia. Studies have also pointed towards the idea that exposure to certain viruses before birth may lead to the eventual development of schizophrenia (Comer, 2005).
The causes of Schizophrenia have been a controversy for years many say its genetics where many also say its environment. It can run in families according to the article Schizophrenia, “The children of a parent with schizophrenia have about a 10% risk of developing the illness, which is more than 10 times the risk of developing schizophrenia among those who have no relatives with the illness” (Keefe). There is no exact predisposed gene for schizophrenia just rare genetic defects and
The Dopamine and Glutamate Hypothesis and other Influencing Factors in the cause of Schizophrenia Michele P. Bryant Antelope Valley College Abstract Schizophrenia is a Psychological disorder that impacts the person 's ability to process thoughts, emotions and action. Schizophrenia symptoms are categorized as cognitive, positive and negative symptoms. There has yet
It is clear that schizophrenia is a very complex disorder, who origins appears to lie in the biological, environmental, and psychological aspects of the disorder. Perhaps, they say that the disorder arise from disruptions in the brain development from before birth through childhood, but today is uncertain the true origin of the disorder