Testing And Treatment Of Hiv 1

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A wide variety of articles were reviewed that adopted a number of different study designs for their research. A number of different experiments were also looked at which demonstrated how resistances to certain HIV-1 anti-retrovirals are arising. As presented in the appendix, this specific section will evaluate the results from many randomized control trials (RCTs), case control studies, prospective cohort studies with and without controls, retrospective cohort studies with and without controls and cross-sectional studies.

HIV-1 integrase inhibitors:

HIV-1 integrase is one of the key enzymes required for the successful replication of HIV-1 and is often a common therapeutic target to help treat HIV-1 infections. Integrase is a
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“They looked at multiple coding sequences of the HIV-1 integrase enzyme form blood plasma samples of 61 patients. They categorized the main integrase region sequences as subtype B, with minor subtypes being C (CRF01-AE, CRF02-AG and CRF13-cpx), D and G. No major integrase drug resistance mutations have been observed in new patients beginning with integrase inhibitor treatment, however in 30 cases, polymorphic variations with the E157Q mutation were observed. This mutation was more common among subtype B (26 cases) than with non-B subtypes (5 cases). Major integrase inhibitor drug resistance mutations (G140S, Q148H, N155H, V151I, E92EQ, V151I, G163R) were notable in four of these cases. Time to the development of drug resistance ranged from 3 to 16 months with a mean increase of HIV viral load of 4.34 HIV-RNA copies/ml at the time of emergence of the major mutations.” (11) Figure 1 demonstrates four cases in which resistance to integrase inhibitors were observed.
In a study conducted by Piralla et al., HIV-1 integrase variability was analyzed using stored plasma samples from 95 patients infected with HIV-1, within a one year period from 2008 to 2009. Patients with no available plasma samples or viral load less than 1,000 HIV-RNA copies/ml plasma were excluded from the analysis. Their results demonstrate that primary mutations associated with resistance to integrase inhibitors were not detected in patients that have previously been treated with integrase
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