The Clinical Manifestations And Pathophysiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

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For the purpose of this report we will consider the clinical scenario of Ava, and comprehensively discuss the conditions she has been diagnosed with in regards to negative feedback loops, the clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of type 1 Diabetes, an understanding of autoimmunity and how Grave’s disease identifies as autoimmune in nature, and how it also presents in Serum laboratory testing.
Ava is a 15-year-old girl that has presented to hospital with a history of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Grave’s disease. She has been unwell for 3 days with a viral illness so her father has brought her to the emergency department. She has an elevated blood glucose level, glycosuria, polydipsia and elevated blood ketones.

Diabetes Mellitus
The type 1 Diabetes that Ava lives with differentiates from type 2 Diabetes in that it is characterized by the complete autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic Beta (B) cells that produce and secrete Insulin in the Islet’s of Langerhans (Craft & Gordon, 2015, pg253). By contrast, type 2 Diabetes is a combination of B cell destruction, B cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance (Turner & Wass, 2009, pg803). The Beta cells of a non-Diabetic person would rapidly respond to glucose, however in type 1 Diabetes antibodies are produced against the body’s own B cells and consequently all the Islets are destroyed (Montague, 1983, pg50 and Craft & Gordon, 2015, pg253). This results in the failure of negative feedback loops in maintaining the body’s
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