The Effect Of Prostaglandins On The Inflammation Pathway And The Mechanism Of Action Of Nsaids

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The role of prostaglandins in the inflammation pathway and the mechanism of action of NSAIDs
Student ID: 51555517 Date: 11-11-2015
Inflammation is a defense reaction, whereby harmful factors are removed and tissue structure and function are restored. During the acute phase of inflammation, first neutrophils will arrive, followed by monocytes. The monocytes mature into inflammatory macrophages and will finally affect the function of the resident tissue macrophages [Figure 1]. These responses lead to swelling, redness, heat and often pain. Once the first stimulus is removed, the reaction will stop and the inflammatory cells will be returned to pre-inflammatory numbers. Prostaglandins play an important role in immune reactions and are therefore often targeted by anti-inflammatory drugs, such as non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The specific role of prostaglandins and the mechanism of action of NSAIDs will be discussed (Ricciotti; FitzGerald, 2011). Figure 1. Basic diagram of acute inflammation (Reilkoff; Bucala et al., 2011)

Prostaglandins in general
Prostaglandins are formed when arachidonic acid is released from the plasma membrane by phospholipases [Figure 2]. This acid is metabolized by PGG/H synthase or cyclooxygenase (COX).
The four main bioactive prostaglandins are generated in vivo: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostacyclin (PGI2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2 (PGF2).
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