Sep 19, 15
Biology p 4
How Do Changes in Temperature and pH Levels Affect Enzyme Activity? Lab Report
In biology class, we’ve learned that sugars produce energy and to use sugars to gain energy, an organism needs a proper enzyme should exist to break it down the chemical bonds of the sugar. Enzymes and proteins are important in organisms because they are involved in most chemical reactions that take place inside of an organism. Our example of an important enzyme was catalase, which breaks down H2O2. H2O2 is a natural by-product and toxic. When H2O2 contacts catalase, it breaks down into water and oxygen. Our group got curious about how changes in temperature and pH levels affect enzyme activity. Since enzymes are group of protein and protein can break easily by acid, base, and hot temperature. To experiment our question, we used catalase solution, 3% H2O2 solution, 0.1 M HCl solution, 0.1 M NaOH solution, a beaker, an O2 gas sensor, sensor interface on a Chromebook, pH paper, and safety gloves. Therefore, we conducted experiments to test how enzyme activity in different conditions. Plus, we predicted that if temperature increases or enzyme have contacts with acid or base, enzyme activity will decrease. We held four controlled experiments which are controller, temperature, HCl Acid, and NaOH Base. We controlled the amount of catalase to 10 mL and H2O2 solution to 4 mL. First we mixed catalase with H2O2 solution and used O2 sensor to gather
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The Effects of Varied Temperatures, pH Values, Enzyme Concentrations, and Substrate Concentrations on the Enzymatic Activity of Catecholase
Students will be observing normal catalase reaction, the effect of temperature on enzyme activity, and the effect of pH on enzyme activity in this experiment. The enzymes will all around perform better when exposed in room temperature than when it is exposed to hot and cold temperatures. This is based on the fact that the higher the temperature, the better the enzymes will perform, but as the temperature reaches a certain high degree, the enzymes will start to denature, or lose their function.
Introduction: Starting out with some background information, I know that enzymes are biological catalysts. The enzyme that I used for this experiment was potato juice. Enzymes make reaction rates go faster. They lower activation energy, making chemical reactions. Temperature has an effect on canola cultivars. The higher temperature decreased stem diameter, but room temperature had thicker stems. So I believe the same will happen for the catechol oxidase; the solution will react faster at room temperature. Other enzymes can also have different effects such as the enzyme in cattle serum. The enzyme lost activity in room temperature. With that being said room temperature can also be detrimental with specific enzymes. Fungus also
These results show how temperature of extreme high, or low affects enzyme activity. The highest rate of enzyme activity occurred at 37 Cº. Anything that was hotter or cold than 37 Cº slowed the reaction rate. As I thought, 100 degrees would denature the enzyme, and that was the case. The data provided shows exactly what temperatures enzymes work best, and worst. The objective was achieved as we discovered the different reaction rates under different temperatures. The results are reliable, as we know enzymes do not work well when under extreme heat or denaturation occurs. What I learned in this experiment was that enzymes don’t work well under cold temperatures because they tend to move slower. My hypothesis did not quite match, because I thought they work best at lower temperatures.
Background and Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that process substrates, which is the chemical molecule that enzymes work on to make products. Enzyme purpose is to increase the rate of activity and speed up chemical reaction in a form of biological catalysts. The enzymes specialize in lowering the activation energy to start the process. Enzymes are very specific in their process, each substrate is designed to fit with a specific substrate and the enzyme and substrate link at the active site. The binding of a substrate to the active site of an enzyme is a very specific interaction. Active sites are clefts or grooves on the surface of an enzyme, usually composed of amino acids from different parts of the polypeptide chain that are brought together in the tertiary structure of the folded protein. Substrates initially bind to the active site by noncovalent interactions, including hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions. Once a substrate is bound to the active site of an enzyme, multiple mechanisms can accelerate its conversion to the product of the reaction. But sometimes, these enzymes fail or succeed to increase the rate of action because of various factors that limit the action. These factors can be known as temperature, acidity levels (pH), enzyme and/or substrate concentration, etc. In this experiment, it will be tested how much of an effect
Hypothesis: If the temperature increases, then rate of the chemical reaction will increase as well, and if the temperature decreases, then the rate of reaction will also decrease.
The purpose of this experiment was to record catalase enzyme activity with different temperatures and substrate concentrations. It was hypothesized that, until all active sites were bound, as the substrate concentration increased, the reaction rate would increase. The first experiment consisted of five different substrate concentrations, 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0% H2O2. The second experiment was completed using 0.8% substrate concentration and four different temperatures of enzymes ranging from cold to boiled. It was hypothesized that as the temperature increased, the reaction rate would increase. This would occur until the enzyme was denatured. The results from the two experiments show that the more substrate concentration,
The objective of this lab was to develop a protocol to investigate the effect of an environmental variable on the catalytic function of an enzyme. More specifically, the objective was to perform an experiment in order to test the effect of pH on the function of the enzyme catalase.
Abstract: Enzymes, catalytic proteins that at as catalysis which makes the process of chemical reactions more easily. There are two main factors that actually affects enzymes and their functions which are temperature and pH. Throughout this experiment, the study how pH and peroxidase affects each other and the enzyme was made. The recordings of how the enzymes responded when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH which was predicted in the hypothesis and the IRV at the end.
Enzymes are high molecular weight molecules and are proteins in nature. Enzymes work as catalysts in biochemical reactions in living organisms. Enzyme Catecholase is found on in plants, animals as well as fungi and is responsible for the darkening of different fruits. In most cases enzymatic activities are influenced by a number of factors, among them is temperature, PH, enzyme concentration as well as substrate concentration (Silverthorn, 2004). In this experiment enzyme catecholase was used to investigate the effects of PH and enzyme concentration on it rate of reaction. A pH buffer was used to control the PH, potato juice was used as the substrate and water was used as a solvent.
In the following experiments we will measure precise amounts of potato extract as well as Phenylthiourea, combined with or without deionized water and in some instances change the temperature and observe and record the reaction. We will also investigate the different levels of prepared pH on varying samples of the potato extract and the Phenylthiourea and record the results. We will answer question such as what is the best temperature for optimum temperature reaction as well as the best pH level for the same reaction.
The purpose of this experiment is to find out what affect temperature has on enzyme activity. To find out all this we need to know what an enzyme actually is. An enzyme is an organic compound that breaks downs vitamins and nutrients into usable energy for you body, but not only does it break down it also builds up. An enzyme is also known as an organic catalyst. What is a catalyst you ask? A catalyst is a substance that increases the chemical rate of reaction. A catalyst is not used up by the chemical reaction; it is the same substance when the reaction is complete. What are enzymes used for in the human body? The body uses an enzyme to manufacture a chemical reaction. If we were born without enzymes in our body the chemical reaction wouldn’t occur, because we
PH levels affect enzyme activity. If pH level is lesser or greater than 6.8, hydrolysis of amylase will decrease; and as pH decreases, the starch hydrolyzed by amylase will increase––therefore hydrolysis of starch at pH 4 will occur faster than at pH 12. In Manabe’s et al. studies (2012), data from their research concluded that a higher external pH allows more regulated secretion of amylase. ¬¬¬Amylase is an enzyme involved in carbohydrate digestion by converting (through hydrolysis) starch into simple sugars––such as glucose and maltose (Serrano & Paralta, 2015). According to the 2012 studies conducted by Arhakis et al., salivary amylase makes up most of the protein content in saliva. It is also indicated in the study that amylase prevents
The efficiency of enzymes depends on a number of factors, such as temperature, pH and the concentration of the enzyme just to name a few. This experiment was conducted to show the effects of different pH levels on the activity of the catalase enzyme, the data obtained in this experiment supports the initial hypothesis of the experiment which states that the catalase enzyme will function optimally at a pH of 7 and efficiency will decrease as the pH of solutions moves further away from 7. This is true because in the experiment the test tube containing the distilled water which has a pH of 7, produced the highest amount of foam out of the four test tubes. The efficiency of the reaction can be determined by the amount of foam (foam