The French Paradox Of Cholesterol And Saturated Fat Diet

2530 Words Feb 8th, 2015 11 Pages
The French paradox is a slogan which was first used in the 1980’s to summarize the observation of low Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) rates, as shown in figure 1, of the French despite their dangerously high intake of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat (Ferrières, 2004). The French acquire approximately 38% of their energy from fat with 16% of that being saturated fat. This is in contradiction to the widely known and proved hypothesis that a high consumption of fat is a major factor in CHD. This paradox implies a significant possibility: There is an additional factor in the French diet that alleviates the risks associated with a high fat diet. Ryan Fujiu believes that it is the regular consumption of red wine that diminishes the dangers of …show more content…
In solution it undergoes the following ionisation reactions:
H_2 C_4 H_4 O_6 (aq)+H_2 O⇌HC_4 H_4 O_6 (_^-)(aq) +H_3 O^+
H_2 C_4 H_4 O_6 (_^-)(aq) +H_2 O⇌HC_4 H_4 O_6 (_^(2-))(aq) +H_3 O^+
Adding tartaric acid increases the total acidity due to the extra hydrogen ions (Present as H_3 O^+).
Tartaric acid has plenty of health benefits. It acts as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory which boosts the immune system. It also lowers overall glucose levels which prove quite useful for glucose sensitive people. As expected with naturally occurring acids, there are unpleasant side effects. When consumed in large quantities it causes thirst, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal inflammation.
Grape juice is a potential food source for bacteria and fungi. To prevent the growth of these micro-organisms sulphur dioxide is used to act as a germicide and antioxidant. Sulphites kill bacteria and undesirable yeast and help to preserve wine by protecting it from oxidation. Sulphites are added at several different stages in the winemaking process as shown in Figure 2 and stay in the wine for consumption.
Sulphur dioxide SO_2 can be present in a number of forms or fractions in wine.

Potassium metabisulphite dissociates in the wine to potassium ions (K^+) and singly ionised bisulfite, (HSO_3^- ) as shown in the following equation:
K_2 S_2 O_5 (s)+H_2 O(aq)⇌2K^+ (aq)+2HSO_3^- (aq)
The hydrogen sulphite ion (HSO_3^-) from this dissociation
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