It is more reasonable to think that the patient has the usual range of mental states. Behaviours visually express mental states better than knowing if one has a Cartesian soul or the requirement of a normal human brain.
It is reasonable to think that the patient has the usual range of mental states because she is behaviourally indistinguishable from a normal human. Behaviours make mental states more evidentially obvious than knowing the brain state of a patient or if they have a Cartesian soul or not.
Doctor 4 provides the argument that since the patient is behaviourally indistinguishable from a normal human, she has the usual range of mental states. Gilbert Ryle’s view on the mind and body problem stems from “Philosophical or logical behaviourism” (Wk. 8-1, Slide 18). This view means that the idea that ascriptions of mental states correlates to “dispositions of behaviour” (Wk. 8-1, Slide 18). Behaviourists describe that saying, “I am in pain, does not report an inner state, but rather is part of being in pain” (Wk. 8-1, Slide 23). B.F. Skinner, a psychological behaviourist, also believes that mental states correlate to behaviours. Psychological Behaviourism is defined as, “studying the mind by studying behaviour” (Wk. 8-1, Slide 26). Skinner’s black box is an experiment to observe “stimulus/response pairings” (Wk. 8-1, Slide 26). Suppose we were to subject the patient to a number of stimuli in a test environment, and noted down her behaviours. We would
In another article written by Spitzer, the validity of Rosenhans hypothesis is also critiqued. By questioning the validity of Rosenhans study, his work in to what it means to be deemed ‘psychologically abnormal’ is tainted. Spitzer criticises the study as scientific and instead calls it ‘pseudo science’, (Spitzer, 1975). Spitzer suggests that Rosenhan cannot criticise the institutions for labelling the pseudo patients because the evidence they present when asking for admittance, and then they’re behaviour following hospitalisation, warrants this. He references lists of symptoms from the DMS-II and points out that the nervousness, excessive note taking, and actually asking to be admitted to a psychiatric ward is enough evidence to label an individual as ‘Schizophrenic’. Spitzer suggests that based on the evidence present that hospital staffs were correct to diagnose and label the pseudo patients. This highlights the use of type 2 errors in diagnoses, and as the staff would not normally be
Explain how mental ill health may be indicated through an individual’s emotions, thinking and behaviour?
The medical model focuses on the molecular structure of drugs and indicators of mental or emotional disorders. However, the medical model is not effective treating mental and emotional disorders. The medical model indicts the notion that abnormal behavior is the product of physical problems and be treated medically. The medical model depends upon independent tests to demonstrate or contradict if a patient is ill. The psychological model uses tests to demonstrate or contradict whether a patient is ill. It is at this point of agreement that the two models separate. A restriction to the psychological model is if a patient that is unconscious, or their communication ability is compromised to the degree that they are
1.4 Explain how mental ill health may be indicated through an individual's emotions,thinking and behaviour?
For centuries philosophers have engaged themselves into conversations and arguments trying to figure out the nature of a human person; this has lead to various theories and speculation about the nature of the human mind and body. The question they are tying to answer is whether a human being is made of only the physical, body and brain, or both the physical or the mental, mind. In this paper I will focus on the mind-body Identity Theory to illustrate that it provides a suitable explanation for the mind and body interaction.
Historically, Western Medicine has been divided into Eras. The first ERA, noted in the 1860’s, was referred to as the Mechanical Model. The medical world, as well as society, viewed illness as a purely physical entity. The mental and emotional components of illness were often considered as an afterthought. The second ERA, as described in the mid-twentieth century, is named the Mind/Body ERA. This was the time where attention was brought forth that there is a connection between the consciousness and the physical aspects of health and illness. Pscho-somatics was a coined phrase around this time. The third ERA is known as the Quantum Physics Paradigm (Dossey,1982). This era identifies transpersonal presence as its basis and accepts that the mind and the body, as well as non-local energies, affect health and illness.
The DSM is a classified system used by psychiatrist and other clinical professions in order to diagnose clients and patients who show signs of some type of disorder. The two advantages of using this model or classification system ranges from the validity of an assessment used by clinicians and other health care professionals. Build around the concepts and purposes for the DSM model is that it supports a number of standard assessments of diagnosing different treatment providers. Furthermore, (Comer, J. 2016) suggest that the DSM-5 requires clinicians to provide both categorical and dimensional information which is part of being consistent in diagnosing. From a categorical perspective this refers to the name of a particular category of a disorder which is indicated on behalf of the client’s symptoms. From the dimensional perspective it is a rating of how the client symptoms and the severity of the dysfunction through various dimensions.
As the Behaviourist approach differs so greatly in comparison to the Psychodynamic approach, people have mixed opinions on both approaches. As no one can ever fully understand the complexity of the human mind, neither the behaviourist nor psychodynamic approach will ever be completely correct. As both approaches vary, we can conclude they have both been successful and incorrect in many cases. Psychologists have studied the mind for decades and these approaches give us a foundation in understanding the human
Eight sane people were admitted into twelve different hospitals, where their diagnostic experiences would be part of the data of the first part of the article, while the rest will be devoted to a description of their experiences in psychiatric institutions. The patients were all very different from each other, three were women and five were men. Among them were three psychologists, one psychology graduate, a pediatrician, a housewife, a psychiatrist, and a painter. The ones that were in the mental health field were given a different occupation in order to avoid special attentions that might be given by the staff, as a matter of courtesy or caution. No one knew about the presence of the pseudopatients and the nature of the program was not known to any of the hospital staff. The settings were different as well. The hospitals were in five different states on the West and East coasts. Some were considered old and shabby and some were
Describe what evolutionary psychologists mean when they employ the term ‘theory of mind’. Use examples and research studies from Book 1, Chapter 2 to show why this theory is important in evolutionary psychology.
Whereas the psychodynamic model began looking at the clinical work of physicians the behavioural model began in laboratories experimenting on behavioural conditioning, using stimuli and rewards, observing how their manipulations affected the responses of the individual they were studying. This model unlike the psychodynamic model can be tested and it is because of this that this model holds more weighting than the psychodynamic model when trying to understand ‘abnormal’ behaviour. However this model is not without its weaknesses as there is no evidence that individuals that display ‘abnormal’ behaviour are victims of improper conditioning. Behaviourists would argue that ‘abnormal’ functioning is learnt behaviour, and not environmental or genetic, the
Many philosophers agree that consciousness provides a very difficult problem in understanding the mind-body concept; this is why from a materialist’s point of view, the problem is not sufficient enough for giving one’s attention. Thomas Negal on the other hand, finds the problem rather interesting. Negal’s “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?” proposes a number of arguments, one of them which states that the subjective approach to the mind-body problem should be abandoned for a more objective approach (Nagel 1974, pp. 436). The purpose of this essay is to show that Negal’s arguments are sufficient in describing whether it is indeed possible to know what it is like to be a bat, portraying his arguments in an orderly fashion, and ultimately
The Science of Mind philosophy is not an abstract spiritual theory, but rather, a study of Consciousness, and, specifically, our expression of It. Ernest Holmes considered this study of Mind to be a science, in that it correlates principles and practices that can be applied and proven to be effective. Even so, the correlation of principles and practices is not what makes the Science of Mind a practical philosophy to live by. Anyone can deduce principles and devise practices that enhance and advance their favorite theory of everything. Every religiously minded group has done just that. Science of Mind distinguishes itself as a practical philosophy because of its teachings on the nature of Law, and its emphasis on the application of the principles of this Law in our life.
Psychology is an extraordinarily diverse field with hundreds of career paths. Some specialties, like treating the mentally ill, are familiar to most. Others, like helping with the design of advanced computer systems or studying memory, are less well-known. What psychologists have in common is a shared interest in mind and behavior. In their work they draw on an ever-expanding body of scientific knowledge about how humans think, act, and feel, and apply the information to their special areas of expertise. The profession of clinical psychology encompasses both research and statistics, through which is learned fundamental data about behavior; and practice, through which that knowledge is applied in helping to solve