The multifaceted state of South Africa underwent vast reconstruction after the end of the apartheid in 1994 and experienced transformative changes in the racial, economic and societal relations of the region. Aside from the divisions and devastations the country faced as a result of apartheid the country also opened its economy to international business, deregulating major sectors of its economy and engaging in trade liberalization policies in an attempt to spur economic growth and international trade (Schreiner, Mohapi & Koppen, 2004). The positive economic development that was expected as a result of these policies was not felt and many people lost their main source of employment and survival. This affected South African woman …show more content…
Literature in this field emphasizes the idea that although these programs directly contribute to the income and thus empowerment of women they are not a cure-all solution to women’s poverty and women face major developmental and societal challenges, particularly in South Africa given the events of the Apartheid. Literature within this field highlighted that improving gender equity and improving the economic power of women would enable long-term development and success for women (Chant, 2014).
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The multifaceted role of women in South Africa is described as a “dual burden of productive and reproductive labor” or women engage in a ‘triple burden’ of activity in which women as the head of the household are the single earner, the earner being female and having to cope with labor market disadvantages as well as the “time constraints due to commitments of managing the household and earning income” (Chant, 2014; Rogan, 2012, p. 493). The gendered role of the responsibility of women within the household leads to a lack of support from male counterparts and a “disparity in the capacity to negotiate obligations and entitlements” of work within the household (Chant, 2014, p. 302). In the face of extreme poverty women have the responsibility to care
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“Women often work more than men, yet are paid less; gender discrimination affects girls and women throughout their lifetime; and women and girls are often are the ones that suffer the brunt of acute poverty” (Africa News Service). Oppression shows unjust behavior between men and women very clearly considering their roles in everyday life, for example, women show plentiful potential during hard working hours yet still have to struggle to pay bills and stay out of poverty. Even though women have gained little, but more respect, The Crucible takes place in a time period in which women only have to stay home, cook, and care for the children while the men farm and do real jobs out of the house. Some ladies decide not to take action while others believe women should be able to do anything a man can do, a call for justice is what is needed to start a revolution for females
In many regions of Africa it is still common to practice female genital mutilation and other forms of violence against women in patriarchal societies and through the IAW many women and girls have been saved from such mutilation. Other programs include the provision of contraceptives for women, in particular those in poorer undeveloped nations. Pre and post natal care as well as other programs which foster the development and growth of women in leadership roles and avenues for women to create and develop businesses. These programs and campaigns have fostered the growth of so many women whether tangibly through their successes or intangibly through their improved self confidence and belief to know they can do better and should expect better despite their past. It has empowered women to overcome boundaries decades ago were impenetrable. As with any other process of change, they too have encountered challenges. Some of these are the same obstacles they try to overcome; gender biases and discrimination. Others include effecting a change in the mindset of individuals and in gaining support for their cause in male dominated countries and cultures where it is the status quo for women to 'know their place' and stay at home and 'raise' the kids. They also face economic and political challenges from governments and corporations who still believe the best senior executives should be males as opposed to promotions based on
It’s shocking to think just over a hundred years ago women in the UK had very little rights, they couldn’t vote, they were excluded from higher educational institutes and working outside the home was unheard of. In the mid 1990’s the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) used the phrase “Poverty has a woman’s face” to indicate that women make a disproportionate percentage of the world’s poor. In the exact same report (UNDP, 1995: 4) they also revealed that of the 1.3 billion living in poverty 70 percent were women. Peter Townsend et al (1987) argue that
In 1948, when the National Party came into power, they established the policy of “apartheid”, consequently, the oppression and discrimination against the blacks increasingly intensified. Women who were against the government embarked a further active political role. During the 1940s and 1950s, there was an initiation of many women’s organizations that were all connected through the struggles of anti-apartheid (Keller, 2013).
Women in Sub-Saharan African should work more in that there is an increase in the number of women participating in agriculture, as most men have resorted to work in non- agricultural activities. This entails that women should venture into men’s cash crop farming too so that they earn more income in order tothat can change their economic situation.
Reading Reflection Synthesis: The two themes in this week's reading, "The Growth in Poverty and Social Inequality: Losing Faith in Social Justice" by Ann Duffy and Nancy Mandell, are the perspective society has of women in regards to working and being independent, and the vicious cycle of being born into poverty and continuing the never-ending loop. The perspective that society holds of women towards idea of working and freedom is something abstract. The reading talks about women struggling financially because of traditional gender stereotypes.
Question 2: Despite campaigns since the 1970’s, women still make only $0.77 for every $1.00 their male colleagues make. They are more likely to be unemployed and living below the poverty threshold. They are also more likely to be the head of a single parent household. Mothers in single parent households must struggle with working, childcare, and providing for their family while trying to get ahead in life. These facts combined meant that there has been a ‘feminization of poverty’.
Conceability to access to power is very limited and stiffed, but they still try to choose paths or achieve their goals within masculine society (Laura, 2009). On the other hand, agriculturalists women in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from unequally in the distribution of lands and resources although they should contribute in the household expenses while they get less than men do, and they work the same as men do. For the classical system their issues is more about society role, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, women could have economic challenges out of that inequality. “According to sex role theory, we acquire our gender identity through socialization, and afterward, we are socialized to behave in masculine or feminine ways. It is thus the task of
Poverty has increasingly become a noticeable issue worldwide over the past couple of decades. With the middle class steadily decreasing, considerable amounts of people are becoming part of the lower class, and even more of our world’s population are beginning to live in poverty. It is important to understand there are different definitions of poverty, and that is largely determined by what each country’s government determines as the cut off of poverty, otherwise known as the ‘poverty line’. Although some people could live above the poverty line, and still be struggling financially, it goes unrecognized by most research collection. However, what was initially noticed around the 1970’s is that there was a significant rise in women’s poverty statistics. More female-headed households were living in poverty, and a majority of those women belonged to a minority. This recognizable trend has been deemed the ‘feminization of poverty’, which according research is not only a growing problem in North America, but several other countries around the world. Information gathered about this issue in the United States shows that female-headed households is by far the fastest growing type of family structure, and due to the fact there is a growing poverty level amongst this group, it now means that approximately half of the all the poor in the United States live in a women-headed family and household. (Gimenez, 1999, p. 336) The biggest question when is comes to this particular topic is why?
In many developing countries globalization has brought masses of wealth to the elite at the expense of the poor. Consequently, many women of the poorer classes leave their homeland in search of opportunities for employment. These women are disproportionately affected by
The “feminization of poverty”, refers to the trend whereby women and children comprise an increasing percentage of the overall poverty population (Pearce, 1978). Virtually unanimous among activists, women are more likely to fall into poverty than their male counterparts. In addition to this assumption regarding the gender-gap, race and ethnicity interact to further shape the gap. The current situation, as it pertains to females, is not only a consequence relatable to lack of income, but also is a direct result of pervasive bias in society and government.
Many of the contemporary issues in South Africa can easily be associated with the apartheid laws which devastated the country. The people of South Africa struggle day by day to reverse “the most cruel, yet well-crafted,” horrific tactic “of social engineering.” The concept behind apartheid emerged in 1948 when the nationalist party took over government, and the all-white government enforced “racial segregation under a system of legislation” . The central issues stem from 50 years of apartheid include poverty, income inequality, land ownership rates and many other long term affects that still plague the brunt of the South African population while the small white minority still enjoy much of the wealth, most of the land and opportunities
South Africa endured one of the worst colonialisation any country could have went through, whereby the Apartheid regime objectively disregarded the economic participation of the black over to those of the white population. However, the new democratic government would thereby be challenged with effectively having to deal with the challenges in which the past government had left behind. Therefore, in effectively trying to deal with the issues, alternative approaches have to be implemented in order to deliver on the challenges of the public. On the contrary, this essay will critically compare and discuss the liberal and free market, as well as the state interventionist approach as alternative solutions in dealing with current issues of social security, the health and school systems. Which would be able to transform current developmental challenges facing South Africa. In summary, the essay will thereby state which approach can transform South Africa in effectively dealing with developmental challenges currently facing South Africa.
The supermarkets changed the dynamics of agrofood trade, production and employment as supermarkets focused on providing better quality products to the consumers at cheaper rates which is offcourse a good thing but due to this the suppliers put extra burden on the horticulture firms in South Africa and that burden ultimately delegated to the lowest unit of the hierarchy of the firms, i.e., the workers. Along with this I have found that Social and Economic crises in South Africa are not only the result of bad effects of Global value chain and Global Product Networks but also the result of “Apartheid”. Apartheid is a former social system, followed in South Africa, in which blacks and other racial groups did not have the same political, economical and social rights like whites and were treated differently from white people. Under apartheid the South Africa was classified into four different races, i.e., the blacks, whites, coloured and Indian/Asians. In the whole country 80% of population was of blacks, 9% of whites, 9% of coloured and 2% was of Indian/Asians. In 1994 Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa and ended the apartheid system permanently but in my research I have observed that the racial
Baserup (1970) suggested that women needed to reduce the work loads they had so that they take part in education, projects which will also extend their power in the economy. In addition, Baserup pointed out that women have to receive credit facilities for greater economic projects. For example, Baserup echoed the mechanization of “female farming’ in African women farmers and revolutionarize traditional forms of agriculture for productive efficiency extracted from Schech and Haggis (2000). Rogers (1980) also suggested for a complete overhand of male attitudes against women. Rogers explicitly challenged this in her survey of the FAO institutional arrangement. She concluded that no women were found in field officers in technical division. Rogers (1980) therefore, concluded that women were not only excluded from planning and decision making but were being ignored and overlooked. Furthermore, households were assumed to be male headed which also generalized women as housewives (Rogers 1980:66 in Schech and Haggis, 2000). This shows that women’s work was regarded as non- work due to male bias. However, the WID approach agitated for equity, empowerment, efficiency and equal participation of women in existing structures.