The Proband 's Maternal Aunts Essay

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The proband is a 34-year-old African American female that was born in Virginia. She currently lives in Richmond, VA. The proband’s maternal grandmother 's side of the family is from Powhatan, VA. Both her maternal grandparents are of African American, Caucasian American, and Native American (American Indian) descent. The proband’s maternal grandfather was adopted as a young child and not much is known about his family background. The proband’s African American paternal grandparents are from Cumberland County, VA. One of the proband’s maternal aunts and her two daughters (proband’s maternal cousins) have type 2 diabetes mellitus. The proband’s maternal grandmother had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Both of the proband’s maternal aunts are cancer survivors. One aunt had Hodgkin’s lymphoma and the other had breast cancer. One of the proband’s paternal aunts (at age 52) and her daughter (at age 32) both died of cancer. Proband’s paternal grandmother and great aunt are twins and her mother and one of her maternal aunts are monozygotic twins.
Genetic Predispositions/Problems Detected
The proband’s family history consist of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; especially the females within her maternal linage. Family histories where type 1 and type 2 diabetes co-occur happens often (Nogueira, 2013). Both types of diabetes are caused by a loss of physical or functional beta cell mass (Nogueira, 2013). Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is due to an autoimmune process and type 2 diabetes (T2D)

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