Name: Sherisse Mohammed
Subject: Recurrent Issues in Communication Arts
Tutor: Peter Richards
Topic: Of the four (4) theories of the press, which one adequately represents the situation in Trinidad &Tobago?
In 1956, three professors of communication; Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm, published their Four Theories of the Press which went a long way in establishing a classification in the minds of students and educators of journalism. The book was originally published to help give historical, philosophical and international perspective of the press. The four theories were namely the authoritarian theory, the libertarian theory, social responsibility theory and finally, the soviet totalitarian theory. …show more content…
There 's a duty to think before anything is published in media. The right to freedom of expression is not absolute; it 's conditional upon acceptance of this social duty or obligation. If a publication systematically panders to vulgarity, sensationalism, or degradation of the human race, it has forfeited its moral right to freedom of the press. Individuals are also not allowed to deliberately lie, falsely publish, slander, or defame other individuals because doing so forfeits their social bond with others. Lies which are honestly mistaken beliefs, however, should be tolerated. In this theory, it is believed that mischief must face its consequences.
Finally, the soviet communist theory was supported by the communist ideology Karl Marx and Frederiche Engels who proposed a system where power or governmental rule lay amongst just a few in societies who were judged to be the elite or high in social class. They went further to predict that there would be a revolution where the individuals of the lower class would overthrow those in power to form a classless society where everyone shared equal power and status. The media was therefore supposed to amplify or bring to light the concerns of the working class or less influential in society. They were not owned by the government but were to some extent controlled by it. The media was also not to be under
The American journalist and politician Clare Boothe Luce spoke out to a group of journalists to make her statement on the press. The time Luce’s speech was presented, it was 1960; a much different time from how press runs today. Back in the sixties, press was presented in the form of newspapers or by word of mouth, whereas today press appears on a computer screen. In Luce’s speech she states, “It is- to use the big word- the pursuit of and the effort to state the truth.” (L.39). This statement concludes that the author views the whole point of the press to tell the truth. Whether the topic is on the food industry or on economics, press brings information to the people in an honest fashion. Back in this time Clare used many rhetorical
Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels' Communist Manifesto is one of the world's most influential pieces of political literature. The manifesto was created for the purpose of outlining the aims and goals of the "The Communist League". The Communist League was made up of radical proletariats who were fed up with the bourgeoisie social order and sought to overthrow them. The manifesto is known to have been written by Marx and assisted and edited by Engel therefore the many ideas and theories expressed by this work are known as Marxism. Marxism has many poignant views on changing society and its class structure, and what needs to be done to achieve these changes. The Marxism theories do fall
Ever since the 17th century, the newspaper has been produced and blown out of proportion, known as mass media. George A. Krimsky shines his own opinion in his essay, “The Role of the Media in a Democracy.” Krimsky provides many examples, reasoning, and rhetoric devices to expand his argument even more, his argument being that; the press should send out straight facts, let people interpret them, and allow the free press to hold the government accountable.
Moreover, Karl Marx expands on similar ideas that concern the common man in his comprehensive pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto. In this document, he articulates the two main economic classes consist of: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. He claims that the bourgeoisie dominate the ruling class, while the proletariats are exploited physically and emotionally. Another major concept Marx introduces is economic determinism, the theory that the specific economic system that a country has instated affects the values that exist in it. However, he claims that the bourgeoisie, who are in the optimal place in society, will refuse to abandon their economic standings unless there is a violent revolt from the proletariats. Afterwards, a society with no economic classes would be created where the government would manage everything, termed as "communism". Overall, Marx believed that capitalism presented an unnecessary amount of difficulties and that communism was the solution to them.
German Philosopher Karl Marx created the ideology of Marxism in his novel called Communist Manifesto published in1848. In this novel, he expressed the importance of the proletariat, or the working class and how they will take the power out of the capitalist hands. However, Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party took over power in Russia and made what Marx envisioned as communism into
The “roots” of bias in the media date back to the nineteenth century, and criticism about bias partly reflects a controversial idea about what exactly is the media’s role and purpose. Newspapers and television alike are suppose to exist to relay objective, factual information gathered and communicated by journalists and reporters.
Media was just as ever-changing as the society it was taking place within. During this time, media was just beginning to become a nationwide phenomenon. In May of 1874, the “Imperial Press Law” decreed that there would be freedom of the press. This opened the door not only for more forms of media to be readily available, but also for media to now be interwoven with politics. Newspapers
Marxism were theories of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Karl Marx wrote the “Communist Manifesto” of 1848. Marx thought that whoever controlled the economy also controlled the government. There was a major Struggle between the haves and have-nots.He said that the money going to capitalist should be going to the workers. Karl Marx thought Dictatorship of the proletariat was a good idea. His ideas of Marxism would become the basis of communism.
manner, even if negative stories have to be reported. In this essay, the comparison of media
To fully understand we much focus on these three aspects of the issue. Above all, it is the media's job to publish what is true. It is its job to give the audience news and that of truthful news. The most serious concern with the media is that what they reveal to the audience must be true because as a society we are greatly influenced by what we read, hear, and see through the press. This is why libel is more serious than privacy issues. Publishing false or inaccurate information directly is the biggest, and most devastating thing a journalist or media can do. That is the
According to three professors of communication Fred S. Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm there are four theories of the Press (Siebert, Peterson and Schramm, 1956).
Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels explains the good parts of the communist system and how it should still apply to the future. They also predicted how the Communist Manifesto can stabilize the class structure without conflict. They talks about how especially through the increase in productivity, the power of the bourgeois class increases. They argues that the social class struggle is the reason for historical developments and if there are no more classes then there is no reason to worry about class antagonism. Karl Marx wrote this to warn about the dangers in capitalism. Through the idea of communism, Marx says that the society would not have to be divided into social classes. Marx is saying that society is split up
The two articles that I chose, Freedom of Press for Whom? And Diversity around a democratic core: The universal and the particular in journalism, the main ideas of the articles are to draw attention to how the public follows journalisms as well as politicians. Both of the articles discussed that media and journalism are a form of communication. Thus, they both provide information about news related topics to the public. This way the citizens would have a way to have a voice and participate in debates.
The purpose of the news media is to broadcast information in different mediums, gain a larger audience (web, print, and television), satisfy different audience’s through the use of surveillance, and to do all of the above and make a profit. The media will broadcast sometimes the same information in many ways in order for it to reach most people that have access to either cable, Internet or social media. Once the information has reached the people in the community it satisfies their need for information which can be done through surveillance, and lastly there is always a profit in revenue or ratings. The media must satisfy its necessary audiences in order to touch base with the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs which is survival, safety, social belonging, self-esteem and self -actualization.