Three Theories Of Motivation

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Table of Contents
SECTION A 2
A1 2
A2 4
A3 6
SECTION B 8
B1 8
SECTION C 9

SECTION A
A1
Motivation is simply defined as the desire to do things. In business, Motivation is giving a reason to an employee to boost their productivity. It is in human nature to work harder and more efficiently towards something that has higher output reward.
(Motivation)
There are numerous theories about motivation, some of which are:
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory was coined by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”, which states that ‘an individual’s basic need must be fulfilled before he is motivated to achieve higher level needs’.
The Hierarchy is made up of 5 levels;
a) Psychological: These are basic needs of an
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Expectancy Theory
It proposes that people will behave in accordance to the outcome. It suggests that people work harder if they expect a positive outcome such as a reward. For example, people tend to work harder, or take overtime if they expect a pay raise or a bonus.
It is based on three elements; expectancy, the belief you will receive a reward, and the value of the reward.
However the vice versa is also applicable, which is to say, a person’s motivation falls if they expect there not to be a reward.
(5 Psychological Theories of Motivation to Increase Productivity)
There are many more theories about motivation; however they all emphasize a similar set of relationships. This is to say that there are many similarities between them. Take for example: between the Hawthorne Theory and the Expectancy Theory.
• Both Theories suggest that ‘a need needs to be fulfilled’.
• Both Theories suggest that productivity increases when the effort is acknowledged.
• Both Theories suggest that an outcome with a reward boosts productivity.
• Both Theories suggest that Motivation is directly proportional to Expectancy
• Both Theories propose that there needs to be psychological changes rather than physical
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