Tuberculosis As An Infectious Disease

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Tuberculosis is one of the leading infectious diseases around the world. Globally, infectious diseases like tuberculosis among others continue to be one of the leading causes of death in children, adolescents and of the leading causes in adults (WHO). The purpose of this article is to examine and discuss mostly the etiology of tuberculosis, as well as its cause and spread. To better understand the subject of tuberculosis as an infectious disease and the problem it poses throughout the world, the following questions would be answered: What are the factors important in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases? How do sufferers and non-sufferers view tuberculosis? What is the impact of
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Statistics also show that one out of seven humans die of tuberculosis.
In terms of etiology, the bacterium behind tuberculosis as discovered by Koch is a very stubborn one. In his work to determine the cause of tuberculosis he describes how the bacteria shows many distinct characteristics that make them so dynamic. They are rod-shaped, thin, only one-half as long as the diameter of hemoglobin but once in a while, they are able to get as long as the diameter of a cell and belong to a group of Bacilli. In addition, they are also described to possess a form and size that resembles that of the leprosy bacillus that exists in large numbers in everywhere they exist, usually in tissue cells and also outside cells. (Koch, 1882)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a small but very rapid growing bacterium that can only live in humans. Also, it is an aerobic bacterium (meaning that it needs oxygen to survive). This would explain why its complexes are always found in the upper sacs of the lungs.
For someone to actually develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the bacteria would need to enter the body first and cause an infection and one of the ways for this to happen is through breathing in of Mtb infected air, thereby bringing the bacterium in contact with the lungs where it is able to thrive and grow.
Another way a person develops active Mtb is when the host’s immune system is not strong enough (as
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