tudy, we have investigated the activities of seven terpenic compounds; namely carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, geraniol, menthol and thymol against C. tropicalis biofilm. Interestingly, it was found that citral, geraniol, and thymol were significantly effective against planktonic cells of C. tropicalis when compared to C. albicans. Antifungal activities of citral and geraniol were found to be similar with MIC50 (32ug/ml) while thymol was found to have half the MIC50 value (16ug/ml) against planktonic cells of C. tropicalis than C. albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) is defined as the concentration with 50% cell growth in contrast to control or untreated sample. When the microdilution format is utilized and …show more content…
albicans and other non-albicans candida species biofilms 32, no expanded study has been conducted on the activity of terpenes against C. tropicalis biofilm so far. Here, we have explored the biofilm inhibition and biofilm eradication properties of citral, geraniol, and thymol against C. tropicalis. Biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50) and biofilm eradication concentration (BEC50) was defined as the concentration at which 50% of the biofilm cells are metabolically active in contrast to the untreated sample. The calculated BIC50 was found to be two folds higher than MIC50 in presence of citral (64 ug/ml) , geraniol (64 ug/ml) and thymol (32 ug/ml) , whereas, BEC50 (128ug/ml) of matured biofilm is two to four folds effective when treated with citral, geraniol, and thymol. In the case of azole standard drugs such as fluconazole, Ramage et al. , has demonstrated that biofilm cells were also resistant with MICs increased 64–1000 times compared with planktonic cells. Even higher concentrations are needed for complete eradication of biofilm as it forms a firm habitat for its survival. Thus, there is a need to look for better compounds which are natural and less harmful when to be used against candida biofilms. Because there is no consensus regarding the acceptable inhibition level for natural products, we can say the undergone study could be considered well with the definition proposed by Morels et al. . If extracts displayed a MIC less
The purpose of this report is to analyse the growth of the bacteria known as Citrobacter Freundii as well as distinguishing what antibiotics effect its growth. This will be done so by answering the following question after completing its associated experiments. This question includes: what antibiotics are most effective in denaturing the bacteria? It has been predicted that chloramphenicol will be the most effective due to the fact that its medical uses are treating meningitis which is an infection caused by Citrobacter freundii. After conducting the experiments it was found that the chloramphenicol antibiotic was the most effective in denaturing the bacteria, although streptomycin was also affective. However, none of the other antibiotics were able to halt the growth of the bacteria.
Out of the all the antiseptics being used in this investigation the more well known antiseptics such as dettol and sudocrem will be more effective when stopping the growth of bacteria than natural antiseptics like lemon.
Chemical methods of control: Antimicrobial drugs, involves the use of chemicals to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Pasteur and others observed that infecting an animal with Pseudomonas aeruginosa protected the animal against Bacillus anthracis. Later, the word “antibiosis” (against life) for this inhibition and called the inhibiting substance “Antibiotic”. As researchers found out more and more about these chemicals they were able to discover that antibiotics are chemicals or natural substances such as bacteria, fungi, as well as synthetic drugs; that inhibit or kill microbes in small amounts. Chemotherapeutic agents are antimicrobial chemicals (natural or synthetic) that can be used internally or may be absorbed.
Biocides are microorganisms or chemicals that can nullify the dangerous effects of harmful organisms. In lower concentrations of a biocide like triclosan, this synthetic broad spectrum chemical has bacteriostatic effects by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. At higher concentrations triclosan can exert bactericidal effects by acting as a disinfectant and antiseptic , . Due to its non-specific anti-bacterial properties, this biocide has been overused in toys, cosmetics, and medical devices . Due to the prevalent usage of triclosan, the bacteria of today
My results from the lab showed that some household products which are commonly thought of as having antibacterial properties actually showed no signs of being effective against bacteria, while some showed very promising results. The following are the lab results for products tested on their effectiveness on yeast and the bacteria Serratia Marcescens. Even though there was separate testing for yeast and the bacteria, results were the same.
In the future, any further investigations into the effect of antimicrobial substances may wish to investigate the effect of different leading brands of antiseptic solutions that contain the active ingredient Chloroxylenol, and how they affect the growth of bacteria as well as, whether different ingredients, cause the solution to be more or less effective in inhibiting bacterial growth. This will allow consumers and medical professionals to determine which brand or type of antiseptic solution is the most effective in protecting against pathogens such as
Biofilms were cultivated in micro titre plates with and without different concentrations of Medihoney and the effects on the biofilms were monitored.
Collecting and analyzing the growth of over the two different aspects of oral biofilms. Biofilms are one of the most common and abundant species in nature and have both beneficial and harmful effects on plants, animals, and humans. Reasons for studying biofilms range from medically to industrially and hit home to us in our very mouths. For this experiment we collected two types of environment that are nutrient rich for biofilms to grow in and then observed them over eight types of media selecting for different components. Our results
The aim of this experiment was to observe the effect different concentrations of Dettol had on the growth of S. albus. The highest concentration of Dettol (100% - D) was predicted to be the most effective solution to kill and stop the growth of this particular bacteria. This can be justified as S. albus is gram-positive; easier bacteria to kill, developing resistance slower than a gram-negative. Therefore, the highest concentration of antibiotic should be – and was – the most successful in changing the pH levels, and killing S. albus. Through discussion and analysis of the results collected through the experiment, it can be concluded that there is higher chance of killing and the growth of this particular bacteria if 100% Dettol is used.
The principal mechanisms are as follows: (a) Alterations in the target lanosterol demethylase: This is due to mutation(s) in the ERG11 gene resulting in reduced affinity of the target for the azole. Several point mutations have been documented when fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Candida albicans have been investigated.8 Point mutations in the ERG11 gene have been reported in azole-resistant isolates.9 (b) an energy-dependent efflux mechanism: This causes decreased intracellular accumulation of azoles. There are two types of efflux system that have been identified. These are the ATP Binding Cassette Transporters (ABCTs) and Major Facilitators (MFs) respectively. Over-expression of the MF gene MDRl (BENr) in Candida albicans10 is associated specifically with fluconazole resistance but not cross-resistance to other azoles. (C) Alterations in the membrane
Biofilms are hard to treat for many reasons. The main reason is because they are highly resistant to antibiotics. This is because the outer cells protect the inner cells from the antibiotic. Therefore, a long-term treatment of antibiotics is required to help the biofilm related infection. Living in groups, give bacteria properties they didn't have when living alone. Another reason they're hard to treat is because they are undefeatable by the body's natural immune defense system. Biofilms avoid chemical disinfection in two different ways. The first is that a gel-like polysaccharide layer provides a physical barrier against any outside agent, biological or chemical. The second is that even if a biocidal agent is introduced in a large enough quantity to eliminate the living bacteria, then
Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus. This means that that C. albicans has to different phenotypic forms, an oval shaped yeast form and a branching hyphal form. C. albicans normal habitat is the mucosal membranes of humans and various other mammals including the mouth, gut, vagina, and sometimes the skin. Normally C. albicans causes no damage and lives symbiotically with the human or animal host, even helping to breakdown minute amounts of fiber that are eaten in the host’s diet. The normal bacterial flora of the gut, mouth, and vaginal mucosa act as a barrier to the over growth of fungal infections like C. albicans. Loss of this normal flora is one of the main predisposing factors to an infection by C. albicans.