The Human's ear can be divided into three anatomic parts: the external, middle and inner ear. The tympanic membrane is part of the middle ear and is commonly known as the eardrum. The tympanic membrane is a really thin layer of tissue that is difficult to permanently damage because of its toughness. On observation, the Tympanic membrane is clear and reflect light. To observe the Tympanic membrane, one need to do a posterior, lateral and upward traction of the ear pinna for adult, but for the pediatric population, you should do a posterior lateral and downward traction of the pinna. The tympanic membrane is composed of: the anterior malleolar fold, the posterior malleolar fold, the pars flacida which is affected by benign diseases like Otitis …show more content…
The main symptoms of an ear infection are fever and ear pain. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck. The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones responsible for some proteins synthesis, metabolic rate, metabolic development, and much more. Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism are the main diseases processes that wee commonly see in a hospital setting. Hyperthyroidism is the excess production of thyroid hormones which can lead to diseases like Graves's disease, goiters, or thyroid adenoma. A patient with hyperthyroidism will present with non-specific symptoms that include intolerance to heat, increased appetite, tremor, palpitation or anxiety. Hyperthyroidism is generally treated with drugs that would interact with thyroid's hormones function, surgery can also be a possibility. Hypothyroidism is the underproduction of thyroid hormones which can be caused by Hashimoto disease. This disorder will cause the body to produce antibodies that will attack the thyroid gland. A patient will present with symptoms that include weight gain, baldness or cold
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Graves ' disease is an immune system disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism). The thyroid gland is an important organ of the endocrine system. The gland is located at the front of the neck above where the collarbones meet. This gland releases the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which control body metabolism. Controlling metabolism is important for regulating mood, weight, and mental and physical energy levels. When the body makes too much thyroid hormone, the condition is called hyperthyroidism. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women over age 20. But the disorder can occur at any age and can affect men as well. Some of the symptoms of Graves diseases are
Hashimoto thyroiditis is a common disease caused by hypothyroidism. The immune system cells attack the thyroid gland, causing inflammation and eventually destruction of the gland. This reduces the thyroids ability to make hormones. These hormones are known as thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) (Better health channel 2015).
Hashimoto’s Disease is an autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to attack the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s disease causes inflammation to the gland causing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, resulting in hypothyroidism (Mayo clinic, 2014). This is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US and the symptoms are manifested by fatigue, cold intolerance, constipation, weight gain, pale , dry skin, hoarse voice, pain and stiffness in the joints and muscles, menorrhagia, and depression (Mayo clinic, 2014).
The patient’s diagnosis is primary overt hypothyroidism. The patient presents with certain features such as weight gain, weakness, excessively dry flaking skin, dry hair, sluggish movements, constipation, bradycardia, diminished deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral edematous hands, which is classical signs and symptoms for primary hypothyroidism. The patient laboratory test reveals she has an elevation in serum thyroid stimulating hormone level along with low serum free thyroxin and triiodthyronine levels, which indicates it is a dysfunction or abnormality in the thyroid gland as opposed to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus (Gaitonde; Lohano; Porth, 2015, p. 780; Ross, 2014).
The thyroid is a part of the endocrine system. The thyroid produces two hormones that affect metabolism, heart function and brain development. The hormones also helps regulate body temperature, weight and skin dryness. The two hormones that the thyroid secrets is triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid-Stimulation hormone (TSH) is secreated by the pituitary gland, also part of the endocrine system, regulates the production on thyroid hormoes. If thyroid hormones are low the pituitart gland releases more TSH and if the thyroid hormones are hign less TSH is released. If someone is has Hashimoto’s disease the function of the thyroid and pituitary gland is affected and starts to decrease the thyroid hormones in the body and causes the pituitary gland to release more TSH into the
The thyroid gland is found in the front of the neck and produces two main hormones. The hormones are called thuroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). Together these hormones regulate the body’s metabolism by increasing energy use in cells, regulate growth and development, help to maintain body temperature and aid in oxygen consumption. These two hormones are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus senses changes in body’s metabolic rate and releases a hormone known as thyropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hormone then flows through connecting vessels to the pituitary gland which signals it to release another hormone. This hormone is known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then makes
Hashimoto’s disease is now recognized as an autoimmune disease and the primary cause of hypothyroidism, occurring almost twice as often in women than in men. The immune system of someone with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, will mistakenly recognizes the normal thyroid cells as foreign tissue and it produces antibodies that may destroy these cells (American Thyroid Association). When the immune system attack the thyroid, this can lead to hypothyroidism. This is when the body is not making enough hormone to maintain your
Hyperthyroid is a disease that happens when your thyroid gland makes an increased amount of the hormone thyroxine than usual. When having Hyperthyroid your body’s metabolism will increase majorly.This causes many symptoms and signs such as a rapid heartbeat, nervousness, irritability, sweating, insomnia, sudden weight loss, hand tremors( Very big symptom), and the enlargement of the eyes and neck.There are a few different ways the doctor can find out if you have this disease. One of the ways is by your family medical history and a physical exam.
It can also be treated with surgery if needed to be removed, with radiation if it evolves into cancer, medications, different types of diets and radioactive iodine treatments. If the thyroid is overactive and in that case, would be Hyperthyroidism, a condition in which there is an overproduction of the hormone in the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a pathological syndrome in which tissue is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormone. The most common cause of this syndrome is Graves' disease, followed by toxic multinodular goiter, and solitary hyper functioning nodules. Autoimmune postpartum and subacute thyroiditis, tumors that secrete thyrotropin, and drug-induced thyroid dysfunction, are also important causes (Sharma, Aronow, Patel, Gandhi, Desai, 2011). Other than your sex or age, your risk for hypothyroidism is higher if you have a family history of the disease or any autoimmune
The symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, coarse, dry hair, hair loss, cold intolerance, constipation, irritability, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycle, and decreased libido (University Michigan, N.D.). The symptoms of hyperthyroidism include hand tremors, mood swings, nervousness, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, skin dryness, trouble sleeping, and weight loss. Fatigue and muscle weakness are some symptoms of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
The thyroid gland is an organ located in the neck on either side of the trachea. It secrets thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin. It releases hormones that control your metabolism, breathing, heart rate, nervous system, weight, body temperature, and many other functions in the body. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive and the body’s processes speed up and you may experience anxiety, nervousness, hand tremor, rapid heartbeat, excessive sweating, weight loss, and sleep problems.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland, a butterfly shape in front of the neck, overproduces thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland is abundant with blood vessels and it secretes thyroid hormone (Kumar 22). Thyroid hormone influences many different internal body functions such as, metabolism, growth, development, turning food into energy, and increases body temperature. Thyroid hormone is very important for brain development and normal growth during infancy; furthermore, a newborn’s blood drawn from their heel and sent for screening determines of level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (Samuels 2). However, when the thyroid gland over produces thyroid hormone a lot of things in the body development can go wrong. The over produced thyroid hormone forces the body to expedite. It is important to know that one has hyperthyroidism, because it can result in heart, bone problems, and thyroid storm; which heart rate, blood pressure, and the increase in body temperature can be fatal. Hyperthyroidism is more common in females than males and the older a person is the more likely they will have it. Around 27 millions of American have thyroid disease, however only 14 million receive treatment. Also, stress is the main aspect that affects the thyroid gland in either over producing or under producing thyroid hormone (Kumar 22).
Hypothyroidism means that the thyroid does not produce enough of their hormones, and this usually occurs as a result of thyroid dysfunction in themselves. If a person solve its removal, the body is powerless to create the appropriate hormones, and if you remove just one part of it, being able to take them a while longer produced in sufficient quantity, but eventually burns in spending.
The thyroid gland is located in the lower front part of your neck. In this gland, hormones are release that travel through the bloodstream which affect almost every part of the body all the way from the heart, brain and muscles to the skin. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are two diseases associated with the thyroid. These two diseases are both related to the thyroid but affect the body in different ways.
Hashimoto’s disease occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland resulting in increased inflammation in the thyroid (Mayo Clinic, 2016). This inflammation commonly causes the thyroid to quit producing an adequate amount of hormones leading to hypothyroidism (Mayo Clinic, 2016). Depending on the lack of thyroid hormones will equivalent to the amount of damage on one’s body. Hypothyroidism affects the entire body such as decreasing energy metabolism and heat production (McCance & Huether, 2014). Hypothyroidism can be diagnosed by drawing a complete thyroid panel. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapies (McCance & Huether,