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Type 2 Diabetes Report

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In this report, the condition of diabetes mellitus type 2 (Type 2 diabetes) will be examined. The first part of this report will focus on the aetiology of the condition, explaining how and why type 2 diabetes develops in patients. The pathophysiological changes attributed to the disease will then be outlined, with the major changes that contribute to the development of the condition being highlighted. The report will then conclude with a description of how these pathophysiological alterations produce the signs and symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes.

AETIOLOGY
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by a combination of both genetic and lifestyle factors, characterized by changes in the body’s reaction to insulin and the
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This change in the metabolism of glucose is preceded by a slow decline in function of pancreatic β cells and a gradual increase in the body’s resistance to insulin (14). These changes in insulin resistance and β cell function are the core pathophysiological modifications of type 2 diabetes. Genetic and lifestyle factors previously highlighted in this report result in individuals with tissues resistant to insulin and a decrease in the functionality and mass of pancreatic islet…show more content…
Hyperglycemia presents with three main clinical features which are shared between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These are polyphagia (increased hunger), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyuria (increased urine production and excretion) (21).
As the muscle and liver cells decrease their uptake of glucose due to resistance to insulin, these cells are starved of nutrients and thus stimulate hunger centres in the brain to seek out more food to intake, causing an increase in hunger (21). The increased glucose in the blood provoked by the decrease in circulating insulin causes the kidney transport threshold for glucose to be exceeded, meaning that not all the glucose in the blood can be reabsorbed after being filtered through the glomeruli. This results in some glucose to be present in the urine (glycosuria), creating an osmotic gradient as glucose in the urine causes water to be extracted from the blood into the urine, which in turn provokes large amounts of water to be produced and excreted (21). As a result of the increased dilute urine production and excretion, intracellular dehydration triggers the thirst response in the hypothalamus in order to rehydrate the body (21).
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