In order for test results to be accurately applied and interpreted, it is important that it be valid. Validity refers to the degree in which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure (Cohen, Swerdlik, & Sturman, 2013). To validate a test, one must accumulate evidence or data that will provide a solid scientific basis for the suggested test score interpretations (Bornstein, 2011). Although there are many widely used traditional approaches to validity, Robert Borstein, has offered a more modern approach known as the process focused (PF) model in which we will take a look at both approaches. Compare and contrast the PF and traditional models of validity Standardized assessment instruments have been used for a long time in psychology, but it wasn’t until the mid-20th century that contemporary validity and research began (Bornstein, 2011). This use of research for the contemporary theory began with the publication of Cronbach and Meehl’s “Construct Validity in Psychological Test” (Bornstein, 2011). The traditional model of validity is one that is outcome based. It follows a statistical conception that reflects the extent of the relationship between a predictor/test score and some criterion/outcome measure (Bornstein, 2011). The process focused model of validity forms an idea of validity as the degree to which respondents show engagement in a predictable set of psychological processes during the assessment which are prescribed by the nature of the instrument used
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Content validity is achieved when the content of the assessment matches the educational objectives. Criterion validity is demonstrated by the ability of the test to relate to external requirements. Construct validity takes into account the educational variables, such as the native language of the students, to predict the test outcomes. Reliable assessments have consistent results; Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly.
According to Cohen, Swederlik and Sturman (2013) the psychometric soundness of a test is evaluated through its validity, which ensures the test is measuring what it claims to and reliability, which ensures accuracy of the measure across different times and people. While the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACRA) presents information regarding the informed checks and balances in place for drafting and monitoring the NAPLAN, such as quality assurance, trials, expert advice, common scales, and difficulty equating (Reliability and Validity of NAPLAN, 2010), there remains a lack of data regarding testing of the specific psychometric elements of the tool.
Largely, the entire test proved thought provoking as this was a subjective test. Meaning everyone's values are not the same, everyone is not driven by the same motives. This could be problematic in obtaining valid results. It has given this writer cause to carefully examine assessments that are being administered clients. Reliability and validity have a great importance in how counselor should utilize assessments and can assist in finding appropriate instruments in order to be more effective with clients.
Cohen, R. J., Swerdlik, M. E., & Sturman, E. D. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (8th Ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
The definition of success and routes to success may be different, but it is undeniable that all people want to succeed in their lives. According to Malcolm Gladwell, success is seen as an achievement coming from hidden opportunities, effort, diverse backgrounds, or cultural legacy, in life. However, I believe education is one of the factors that contribute the achievement of individuals. There are flaws or inequalities in the United States’ education system, and one of these is the use of standardized test which is the issue that comes in between the individual and their successes. In order to increase the chance of success for an individual, standardized testing should be revoked from education because it does not measure the creativity and knowledge of students which play important roles for one to succeed.
standardized tests is that they lack a level of comprehension and are incapable of succeeding in the educational system. This belief is especially prevalent in regards to high stakes tests such as college entrance and high school graduation exams because the focus is on the test score. The perception is that these scores are the sole indicator of the student’s knowledge of a subject and their ability to succeed at a higher level of education. Therefore,
Imagine a test capable of making or breaking a student's chances of getting into his or her dream college. Imagine a test score that can be easily influenced, but only through thousands of dollars worth of coaching. Now imagine that same test but biased towards certain crowds of students while also being incapable of accurately predicting their futures. Is this the test you want for colleges to use in order to distinguish students? This is the SAT—famous for the unnecessary pressure it presents to students as well as the unfair disadvantages it presents to many others. Since these SAT scores are extremely artificial, SAT tests are not an accurate predictor for future success.
Knight P (2001) “A Briefing on Key Concepts - Formative and Summative, criterion and normreferenced assessment”. LTSN Generic Centre: ISBN 1-904190-05-7
Now, it is time to give an overview of some of the design threats to construct validity. If the researcher did not define the construct efficiently than it can lead to the inadequate preoperational explication of constructs threat (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Next, is the mono-operation bias, which is the use of the study program only one time and one place (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Third, the mono-method bias is the use of any one measure or observation (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Finally, the confounding constructs and the levels of constructs threat (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Overall, this threat to construct validity is a labeling issue like some of the other threats to construct validity (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). However, there are more design threats than listed in this paper to construct
Reliability refers to coherence, stability and dependability in test results, generally using internal consistency to express the levels of reliability in the test. The higher reliability indicates the higher level of accordance, stabilization and dependability in test results. Reliability is the precondition of validity (Guba and Lincoln, 1981). The same findings may not generate if the same research is repeated, because many influencing factors may work in the process of research. The process of establishment in reliability research includes: the research rigorously collect and explain data in consistent investigation (internal checks); the process is transparent (sample design, field work, inquiry and rational data). Patton (1987) suggests that the use of triangulation in multiple approaches can increase the reliability in results.
Test administrators should understand and clarify why the test taker is being assessed,(American Educational Research, 2014). Additionally, they should also understand why certain tests, inventories, and diagnostic procedures are selected. As a student, in the process of achieving a Master 's degree in clinical psychology, it is essential to be aware of the reasons for certain tests, their reliability, and validity.
The debate on standardized tests and its adequacy in testing a student’s knowledge about a subject has been going on for many years. Tests, in general, has been around for centuries and without them there would not be progress and no gleams of progress. Students ranging from elementary school to high school have experienced standardized testing. Teachers, educators, and parents are also involved in the students’ lives, which revolves around the tests, one way or another. There are many views on standardized test. However, the three most common views are: educators who are for standardized test which benefits students, educators who are at the other extreme of opposing standardized tests, and educators who view tests are a benefit if done in appropriate amounts.