1. Both ER alpha and PR receptors are intracellular. They are found in the cytoplasm where they are associated with heath shock proteins. To begin the hormones estrogen and progesterone are released during puberty, where they cross the plasma membrane and enter the cell. Once the hormones enter the cell they bind to the receptor, which leads to the dissociation of HSP protein from the receptor. Once the receptor is activated, it goes into the nucleus to the DNA, where the hormone receptor binds to produce the response. The response of ER alpha and PR is sexual development such as breasts getting larger.
2. HER2 is an oncogenic growth factor receptor, which belongs in the human epidermal growth factor receptor family. HER2 exists in …show more content…
6. Luminal A is the subtype in which the breast cancer is ER and/or PR positive, and HER2 negative. Luminal B is the subtype in which the breast cancer is ER and/or PR positive, and either HER2 positive of negative. Basal like is the subtype in which breast cancer is ER and PR negative, while also being HER2 negative. HER2 is the subtype in which the breast cancer is ER and PR negative, while being HER2 positive. This is usually successfully treated with therapies that target the HER2 protein. Depending on the expression of the receptors, different treatments such as radiation, surgery for removal of cancer, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy can be used.
7. Some treatments are affective for some subtypes and not for the others for many reasons. Influences such as your genes, age, sex, or health can always influence how well a treatment is going to work for your body. Most types of cancers and diseases have treatments that will be specific to its patient.
8. The same treatment is not used for all types of breast cancers because these cancers differ in many ways and will respond differently to treatments. There is no known treatment that will help all four types of cancer.
9. BRCA1 and 2 are tumor suppressor genes. Both BRCA proteins are used in cellular processes such as DNA repair, regulation of transcription, and maintenance of the genome. Some genes they regulate are vital to cell growth, repair, and death.
10. BRCA 1 and 2 are
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Its locus is particularly amplified in these noted tumours leading to the progression of these cancers, it can be suppressed by p53 (tumour/ proliferation suppressor) which represses the EZH2 promoter, resulting inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion (Bracken, 2003; Xiao, 2011).
Treatments for breast cancer can vary depending on the aggression/stage of the cancer. Treatments for breast cancer usually involves some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and/or targeted therapy: treatments depend on the cancer stage and the characteristics of the tumor (Susan G. Komen, 2015). Breast cancer treatment plans
Factors that determine how to treat breast cancer are stage and grade of tumor and if it has spread to other tissue in the breast. The sensitivity to hormones of the cancer cells, health of the patient, age of the patient, and preference of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, if surgery is necessary it may be in the form of a lumpectomy, mastectomy (total breast removal), biopsy of sentinel node, dissection of axillary lymph node, and breast reconstruction surgery if a mastectomy has been done. Lumpectomy surgery is the removal of the DCIS area and a margin of healthy tissue that surrounds it. If necessary lymph nodes under the armpit and total breast removal including the nipple and areola may be removed which is known a mastectomy. After this procedure has taken place further treatment may occur such as radiation in the form
It's not clear what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs when breast cells begin growing abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and form a lump or mass. The cells may metastasize through your breast to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body. Breast cancer most often begins with cells in the milk-producing ducts. Breast cancer may also begin in the glandular tissue called lobules or in other cells or tissue within the breast. The most common are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), both of which significantly increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. During lumpectomy, which may be referred to as breast-sparing surgery or wide local excision, the surgeon removes the tumor and a small margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Mastectomy is an operation to remove all of your breast tissue. Most mastectomy procedures remove all of the breast tissue, the lobules, ducts, fatty tissue and some skin, including the nipple and areola. Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. External beam radiation is commonly used after lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. If your cancer has a high risk of returning or spreading to another part of your body. The most common sites of metastases are the bones, lungs, liver and brain. No one dies from breast cancer that remains in the breast. The lump itself is not what kills. The spread of cancerous cells to a vital organ is what
Not everyone that gets diagnosed with breast cancer will need chemotherapy. There are a few different types of chemotherapy. There is adjuvant chemotherapy, which takes place after surgery. This is used to try and kill leftover cancer cells in the body. If adjuvant chemotherapy isn’t used, and cancer cells get left in the body, they can form new tumors in other places of the body. This type of chemo can lower breast cancer coming back. A second type of chemotherapy is neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This takes place before surgery. Often this type of chemo is used to try to downsize the tumor, so it can get expelled with less extensive surgery.
Breast cancer is a common and potentially fatal form of cancer that affects both men and women. Different patients are given different types of treatment depending on their stage. There are also steps that people can take to not only detect, but also to prevent being affected by breast cancer. Breast cancer treatments have made great leaps forward, allowing both genders to have expectations of victory over the disease. Although breast cancer today has affected many lives among females and males, with the advancements in science and technology, it can be beaten.
TNF alpha is a17-kDa protein that contains 157 amino acids, which is homotrimer in solution. The genes in the body are mapped to a chromosome that encodes a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine
Treatment failure is not uncommon with 30% of breast cancer patients having no improvement following current treatments (Lendorf et al., 2011). A better understanding of the genomic and biological patterns associated with breast cancers may provide the key to improving diagnosis as well as management and treatment of this disease.
Everyone has the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. In inherited cases, these two genes are abnormal. They help maintain the breast cells to grow natural and repair cell damage. If the genes have mutations they are passed from generation to generation. Having an abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 doesn’t directly mean you will get breast cancer. SNP’s (single nucleotide polymorphisms) are linked to
Reception is the target cell's detection of the signal via binding of a signaling molecule, or ligand. Ligand is a complex biomolecule, usually a protein. Receptor proteins span the cell’s plasma membrane and provide specific sites for water-soluble signaling molecules to bind to Receptors are found in two places; Intracellular proteins are found inside the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm or nucleus.Cell-surface proteins are embedded in the plasma membrane These transmembrane receptors are able to transmit information from outside the cell to the inside because they can transform, when a specific ligand binds to it.
Some treatments are called local therapy treatment, meaning they treat the tumor without affecting the rest of the body. (American Cancer Society) Surgery is a type of local therapy, it can remove as much of the cancer as possible (breast conserving or mastectomy). Radiation therapy is also a type of local therapy, treatment with high radiation, often in addition to other treatments. Breast cancer can also be treated using drugs, which can be given by mouth or directly into the bloodstream, this is called systemic treatment. (American Cancer Society) Chemotherapy; a form of systemic treatment, treats a woman’s whole body for breast cancer, not just her breasts. Hormone therapy; another form of systemic treatment, meaning it reaches cancer cells anywhere in the body. Treatment for breast cancer varies from patient to