In their case study, “Fatal hyponatremia in a young woman after ecstasy ingestion,” Kamyar Kalantar-Sadeh, Minhtri Nguyen, Roger Chang, and Ira Kurtz present a 20-year old female, Asian-American, college student who took multiple tablets of ecstasy and drank excessive amounts of water at a party. This student was found the next morning, unresponsive, foaming at the mouth, with rapid and shallow breathing, and a weak pulse. After being admitted into the emergency room, the patient was determined to be hypothermic, hypoxemic, hypotensive, tachycardic, and in respiratory distress. Initially, the patient had a sodium content of 117 mmol/l and a serum osmolality of 245 mOsm/kg. In order to treat the patient, throughout a 11 hour period, a …show more content…
Both pulmonary edema, excessive fluid in the lungs, and cerebral edema, excessive fluid in the brain, were reported for this patient. Because the blood-brain barrier is freely permeable to water, the patient’s neurons most likely swelled, causing a buildup of intracranial pressure, which may have led to her coma. Further, the fact that the patient was found to be in respiratory distress supports the conclusion that water had built up in her lungs as well. In the case study, two additional patients with low sodium concentration in their cells were also presented in order to serve as a comparison to the main case. The history of two Caucasian females, one 38 years of age and the other 24 years old were presented. The 38-year-old female drank 25,250mL bottles of water (6.25L total) whilst running a 64.4 km marathon. She suffered from confusion, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath, as well as pulmonary venous edema. Initially, the patient had a sodium content of 121 mmol/l and a serum osmolality of 253 mOsm/kg. In order to treat the patient, a hypertonic saline, normal saline, and 40mg of intravenous furosemide, a diuretic, were administered after which her sodium content rose to of 125 mmol/l after 2.5 hours and 141 mmol/l after 48 hours with no acute damage to cells. The 24-year-old female underwent an appendectomy and received 5% dextrose infusion before and after
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Hyponatraemia is a disorder in fluid-electrolyte stability that results in an unusual low plasma sodium concentration. A continuous decrease in plasma sodium concentration upsets the osmotic balance across the blood-brain barrier, ensuing in an direct entry of water into the brain. This causes brain swelling and a flow of gradually more severe neurological responses such as confusion, seizure, coma which can result in death from break of the brainstem. The faster and lower the blood sodium falls, the greater the risk of life-threatening consequences. (Eichner, 2003). Athletes who drink too much water before and during exercise (high endurance) in warm and humid weather are at a higher risk of developing hyponatraemia. In addition, bigger athletes are not resistant to hyponatraemia but smaller
The loss of sodium ions can lead to dehydration because sodium makes up 90% of the extracellular fluid and when your sodium levels are low your fluid becomes imbalanced and causes dehydration. (VanMeter, Hubert p 21,23)
Serotonine is a neurotransmitter known for its ability to cause powerful contractions of smooth muscles, therefore a key element in the regulation of blood pressure. Ecstasy causes the release of the neurotransmitters which leads to a fifty- eighty percent reduction in the serotonine. The reduction in serotonine stems into the brain and heart. In the brain the depletion of serotonine is noticed in the striatal area. The straital area is the area responsible for coordination, learning, and memorization (“After the Rave: the Ecstasy Hangover”). The heart is damaged by the loss of serotonine because there is nothing to regulate the pressure of the blood flow. Blood pressure rises to dangerous levels before causing the body to go into distress before dying.
After reading your post i agree with your response of not choosing Risk for Electrolyte Imbalance. Deficient Fluid Volume was more appropriate since the definition explains that there is decreased intravascular, interstitial, and/or intracellular fluid (Ladwig, Ackley, & Makic Flynn, 2014). This refers to dehydration, water loss alone without change in sodium which is an electrolyte. The symptoms, such as dry mucous membranes, thirst and dizziness that the patient in question presented with in the Emergency Room were more specific to fluid output exceeding the fluid intake.
According to J.T.’s labs, high levels of sodium, chloride, magnesium, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin and hematocrit are indicative of dehydration as well the activation Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone system. For example, when there is a decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to dehydration leading to electrolyte reabsorption (Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test reference, 2014). Furthermore,
Six years ago I remember a great friend of mine named Isaiah use to play football and ran marathons for Miramar Senior High School. One day while I was home watching the news he was on television he had collapsed on the field, but no one knew what caused this. So three weeks later after his autopsy it was said due to over excessive amount of fluid it caused him to be put into a coma. Many athletes or trainers do not realize what can happen to you if too much fluid is taken into the body. A study in Boston showed 13% of the marathon runners in 2002 experienced EAH, most of the cases were mild. I believe that most
In Men’s Fitness Magazine, it explains that sodium helps the body hold onto water and helps fluid get to the muscles and blood. Amy Epstein also found that drinking too much water is the cause of hypernatremia, a condition that occurs a lot in athletes who drink a lot of water without the necessary sodium. This can actually cause you to lose fluid (Epstein par. 3-6). Water absorbs quickly into the bloodstream to hydrate the body, but sports drinks absorb even faster because of the minerals contained. Quote
Within the past few days, the news has been covering the story of KJ, a 52-year-old woman in Omaha, Nebraska. During a traumatic motor vehicle accident a few years ago, KJ hit her face against the dashboard and started having severe migraines and constant runny nose. Multiple doctors have seen her since, most of them blame the runny nose on allergies and attempted to treat her with numerous allergies medications. This year, KJ was being seen by physicians at Nebraska Medicine and finally discovered that her runny nose was in fact a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from her brain. KJ condition is known as CSF rhinorrhea, a rare but dangerous condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality for the patient. Multiple nuclear medicine imaging techniques can be used for the diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea including Computed Tomographic (CT) Myelography and Radionuclide Cisternography.
Testing for the comparison between bath salts and ecstasy was conducted on rats, showing that bath salts have similar effects on the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, while as stated before, it is not quite as harmful, with the tests showing that in the long run the drug does not deplete serotonin as severely. Yet more testing is needed to be done on the long-term effect. (DiSalvo, 2012)
In February 2015, 12 students who attended Wesleyan University in Connecticut were poisoned a hallucinogenic drug called "Molly" that had to be taken upon entrance at a campus party. Amphetamine MDMA, also known as molly, is a street drug that can cause muscle breakdown, high fevers, liver failure, and cardiac arrest. Molly also causes euphoria. However, molly gives it’s users exceptional social skills; making users feel friendly, and loving. Molly is most commonly used in settings such as: raves, concerts, and parties. Moreover, psychiatrists have begun to take interest in the drugs capabilities to enhance psychotherapy.
Rivas-Vazquez, a psychological researcher noted, “MDMA was used as a recreational drug whose appeal was based on its capacity to produce mild euphoria, well-being, and an enhanced sense of insight and connectedness with others” (Rivas-Vazquez, 2002). The psychedelic effect that ecstasy constructs is endured for about 4-6 hours which then develops short term and with frequent use long-term physical and mental damages and sometimes fatalities. “Research conducted by the NIDA indicates that the use of club drugs can result in significant complications, including death” (Rivas-Vazquez, 2002). This paper discusses how Ecstasy interacts with the neurotransmitters, how it affects the long-term and short-term memory, the brains reaction to abstinence and the long-term and short-term effects, the addictive properties in the drug, as well as affects it has made on a users ability to function and their
Sodium is vital for the correct functions of muscles and nerves, and keeping blood pressure stable. Low blood sodium is known as hyponatremia and occurs when sodium and water are out of balance (there is either too much water or too little sodium). When sodium levels are low in the body, severe symptoms can arise. Symptoms can include weakness, headaches, fatigue, vomiting, irritability, confusing and muscle cramps (http://www.healthline.com/). Depending on the cause, treatment varies. Cutting back on fluid intake is the best for hyponatremia as the salt concentration in the cells are higher than what they are in the blood, thus meaning by osmosis, water begins flooding into
When a heathy individual doesn’t consume ecstasy the endocrine system that is link with the hypothalamus regulates hunger, thirst, and body temperature. The osmoreceptors detected the osmotic pressure in the red blood cells and sends the osmotic pressure signal to the hypothalamus in the brain and detects the change of water in red blood cells. In order to keep the internal environment stable at an optimum water potential, the hypothalamus will decided whether to produce antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or not into the pituitary glands that is transported to the kidney tubles. ADH will only increase the permeability of the kidney tubles for water to be reabsorbed into the blood if the red blood cells have a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm in the red blood cells. Whereas, on the other hand ADH can decrease/ inhibit when the solution outside of the red blood cells has a higher osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm in the red blood cells. This is done to maintain the osmoregulation internal environment at an optimum level for a heathy person in this case leahs friend Sandy who did not experience a huge amount of thirst compared due to the hypothalamus controlling the amount of ADH needed in
Electrolytes such as sodium and chloride are essential as they help to maintain body’s water balance. However, excessive dietary intake of salt increases the amount of water retained by the body and as a result increases blood volume (Thomas and Bishop, 2007). When the heart senses the