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How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different?Why is F2 a nonpolar molecule, but H2O is a polar molecule? How do you name a positive ion? How do you name a negative ion? How do you name an ionic compound?

Question

How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different?

Why is F2 a nonpolar molecule, but H2O is a polar molecule? 

How do you name a positive ion? 

How do you name a negative ion? 

How do you name an ionic compound? 

check_circleAnswer
Step 1
  • Covalent bonds are much more common in organic chemistry than ionic bonds.
  • In covalent bonds, atoms share electrons, whereas in ionic bonds atoms transfer electrons.
  • The reaction components of covalent bonds are electrically neutral, whereas for ionic bonds they are both charged. This explains why sodium chloride (salt) conducts electricity when dissolved - its components are charged.
  • Covalent bonds are easier to break than ionic bonds.
  • Covalent bonds are far more common in nature than ionic bonds. Most molecules in living things are covalently bonded, for instance.
  • Covalent bonds can form between atoms of the same elements (H2). However, ionic bonds cannot do this.
  • Covalent bonds are formed between two non-metals, whereas ionic bonds are formed between a metal and non-metal.
Step 2

F2 is really F-F. Both atoms in the molecule have the same electronegativity (because they are the same atom) and so they share the electrons between them equally.

H2O is H-O-H. The two atoms have differing electronegativity’s, and so they do not share the bonding pair of electrons equally. O is stronger than H, and so O has the electrons closer to it than H. This causes what is called a "dipole" to appear, where a slightly positive charge is attributed to H and slightly negative to O, due to the proximity of the bonding electrons. This is what is meant by "polar", that one side of the bond is partially +ve, and the other side is partially –ve.

Step 3

An ion is an atoms or group of atoms where the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons. When an atom loses or gains electrons, a positive or negative charge is the result. If electrons are gained, the ion is a cation and when electrons are lost, it is...

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