Problem 2. In a famous meta-analysis, Linus Pauling examined an experiment in which a group ofchildren at ski school were given a pill containing either 1 gram of Vitamin C or a placebo, and werefollowed to see if they caught a cold. The data is shown in the two-way table belowTotal139140279No Cold122109231Cold173148Vitamin CPlaceboTotalAWhy did the study use a placebo (instead of just not giving some children any pill at all)?At the 5% significance level, is there a difference in the rate at which children catch colds whengiven Vitamin C compared to placebo?Under the null hypothesis for the chi-square test of independence, fill in the expected counts inC.the table below, to two decimal places:No ColdColdVitamin CPlacebo

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Asked May 7, 2019
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Problem 2. In a famous meta-analysis, Linus Pauling examined an experiment in which a group of
children at ski school were given a pill containing either 1 gram of Vitamin C or a placebo, and were
followed to see if they caught a cold. The data is shown in the two-way table below
Total
139
140
279
No Cold
122
109
231
Cold
17
31
48
Vitamin C
Placebo
Total
AWhy did the study use a placebo (instead of just not giving some children any pill at all)?
At the 5% significance level, is there a difference in the rate at which children catch colds when
given Vitamin C compared to placebo?
Under the null hypothesis for the chi-square test of independence, fill in the expected counts in
C.
the table below, to two decimal places:
No Cold
Cold
Vitamin C
Placebo
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Problem 2. In a famous meta-analysis, Linus Pauling examined an experiment in which a group of children at ski school were given a pill containing either 1 gram of Vitamin C or a placebo, and were followed to see if they caught a cold. The data is shown in the two-way table below Total 139 140 279 No Cold 122 109 231 Cold 17 31 48 Vitamin C Placebo Total AWhy did the study use a placebo (instead of just not giving some children any pill at all)? At the 5% significance level, is there a difference in the rate at which children catch colds when given Vitamin C compared to placebo? Under the null hypothesis for the chi-square test of independence, fill in the expected counts in C. the table below, to two decimal places: No Cold Cold Vitamin C Placebo

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Expert Answer

Step 1

A.

Placebo is a pill which is harmless. It is given to the participants in a medical research to study the Psychological effect of the participant which is called as placebo effect.

In the above study, the placebos are given to children instead of any other pill because placebo does not have any harmful effect on children, but it is helpful in studying the psychological effect on children.

Step 2

B.

The difference in the rate at which children catch colds when given vitamin C compared to placebo can be tested as follows:

The null and alternative hypotheses are:

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Step 3

The test statis...

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