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State two conditions which favor SN1  and SN2 reaction. ( Structure of alkyl halide  and nucleophile)


State two conditions which favor SN1  and SNreaction. ( Structure of alkyl halide  and nucleophile)

Step 1

Nucleophillic substitution reactions proceed  either by SN1 or SN2

SN1 is a type of nucleophilic substitution reaction in which firstly, alkyl halide forms carbocation by loss of halide ion (Step 1) and then carbocation is attacked by nucleophile. (Step 2)

SN2 is a type of nucleophilic substitution reaction in which nucleophile attacks the alkyl halide in a single step to substitute halide ion with nucleophile. 

Step 2

Whether a reaction will proceed by SN1 or SN2 depends on following factors:

a) Structure of alkyl halide:

  • If alkyl halide is primary, it favors SN2 because carbocation formed during SN1 will not be stable.
  • If alkyl halide is tertiary, it favors SN1 because carbocation formed during SN1 will not be very stable.
  • alkyl halide is secondary,any of the reaction SN1 or SN may be favored as carbocation will be of intermediate stability and governing factor would be steric hinderance. In a sterically hindered  alkyl halide, SN1 will be favored otherwise SN2.
Step 3

Type of nucleophile:

  • If  a strong nucleophile is involved, it will readily attack the alkyl halide so, the reaction favored would be SN2. 
  • If  a weak...

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