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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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hich of the following statements about the periodic table is false?

Elements in the same column have similar reactivities because their valence electrons tend to be located in the same types of orbitals.

A series of ions that are isoelectronic (contain the same number of electrons) in their ground states must have the same electron configuration.

The atomic size of the elements increases going across a period from left to right because the number of electrons increases, so the electrons are located further from the nucleus.

It takes more energy to remove an electron from lithium than from cesium because the valence electrons in lithium are located closer to the nucleus.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The false statement regarding periodic table is to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

The total distance that exists between the nucleus and the valence shell electrons of an atom is known to be the atomic size of that atom. According to the periodic table, the atomic size increases while going down the group and decreases while moving from left to right in the period.

The energy that is needed to eliminate an electron from a neutral atom is known as ionization energy.

According to the periodic table, the ionization energy of the elements increases while moving left to right in the period due to decrease in the atomic size. On the other hand, the ionization energy of the elements decreases while going down the group due to increase in the atomic size of the elements.

Explanation

Reason for false statements:

c. It is false that the atomic size of the elements increases on going across a period from left to right because the atomic size decreases from left to right in the period.

c. The atomic size decreases while going left to right in the period because all the added electrons located in the same outermost valence shell that results in the increase of atomic number and effective nuclear charge. Thus, the attraction of the valence electrons towards the nucleus increases that lead to decrease the atomic size of the elements across left to right in the period.

Reason for true statements: a. It is true that elements in the same column have similar reactivates because their valence electrons tend to be located in the same type of orbitals and they have same number of valence electrons in their outermost shell.

b. It is true that a series of ions that are isoelectronic (contain the same number of electrons) in their ground states must have the same electron configuration because isoelectronic species contains same number of electrons in its valence shell.

d. It is true that it takes more energy to remove an electron from lithium than from cesium because the valence electrons in lithium are located closer to the nucleus because ionization energy decreases while going down the group.

The explanations corresponding to the true statements are given below...

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