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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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. What two components make up a buffered solution? Give an example of a combination that would serve as a buffered solution.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The two main components of a buffer system should be identified.

Concept Introduction:

A buffer solution can be defined as an aqueous solution which is capable of resisting pH changes upon addition of small amounts of a strong base and a strong acid as well as upon dilution by distilled water (or in general water). The action that corresponds to keep the resistance to any changes on pH is known as “ buffering”. A buffer solution has a distinct definite pH value and hence is valuable in reaction conditions where one needs to maintain the pH value at a constant value. Blood is an example of a natural buffer which usually maintains the pH value around 7.4.

Explanation

According to Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory an acid is defined as a substance that is capable of donating protons (H+ ions) whereas a base is a substance that is capable of abstracting protons (H+ ions). Further they have stated that any acid would have a conjugated base while any given base also has its conjugated acid. In the case of our acetate buffer system if acetic acid is the acid then acetate ions are the conjugate base of acetic acid, Also in reverse if one calls acetate ions as the base, then acetic acid is the conjugated acid of the acetate ions. This leads to Lowry-Bronsted speculation that each acid-base reaction is reversible at lease in a small degree.

We could further illustrate this using our example buffer system.

When acetic acid is dissolved in water it releases a proton to the medium and then functions as an acid. In that case water acts as the base which grabs or abstracts the released proton as shown by equation (1)

CH3COOH(aq) +H2O(l)CH3COO-(aq)+H3O+(aq) …… (1)

The acetate ion (CH3 COO- ) which is formed in this instance could abstract a proton from the hydronium ion (H3 O+ ) and function as a base

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