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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 20, Problem 77AE
Textbook Problem
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Would it be better to use octahedral Ni2+ complexes or octahedral Cr2+ complexes to determine whether a given ligand is a strong-field or weak-field ligand by measuring the number of unpaired electrons? How else could the relative ligand field strengths be determined?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Among octahedral Ni+2 complex and octahedral Cr+2 complexes, the one which is better to use to determine whether a given ligand is a strong field or weak field ligand is to be stated. Besides measuring the number of unpaired electrons, another method for determining the relative ligand field strength is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The electrons in the d orbital of a transition metal split into high and low energy orbitals when ligands are attached to it. The energy difference between these two levels depends upon the properties of both metal and the ligands. If the ligand is strong, then splitting will be high and the complex will be low spin. If the ligand is weak, then splitting will be less and the complex will be high spin.

To determine: The complex which is better to use for determining whether a given ligand is a strong field or weak field ligand and another method for determining the relative ligand field strength.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The octahedral Cr+2 complexes are better than octahedral Ni+2 complexes.

The electronic configuration of Cr is [Ar]3d54s1 .

With the loss of two electrons, it becomes Cr+2 with electronic configuration of 3d4 . There are two possible crystal field splitting of the d orbital.

If the ligand field is strong, then the crystal field splitting is like as shown in Figure 1. The electrons will occupy t2g set of orbitals since the splitting is large.

Figure 1

If the ligand field is weak, then the crystal field splitting is like as shown in Figure 2. Three electrons will occupy t2g set of orbitals and one will occupy eg set of orbitals since the splitting is small.

Figure 2

The electronic configuration of Ni is [Ar]3d84s2

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Chapter 20 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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