BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 4, Problem 1ALQ
Textbook Problem
6 views

What are molecular orbitals? How do they compare with atomic orbitals? Can you tell by the shape of the bonding and antibonding orbitals which is lower in energy? Explain.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Molecular orbitals are to be defined. Their comparison with atomic orbitals and the significance of the shape of bonding and antibonding orbitals in the description of their energy is to be stated.

Concept introduction: When the atomic orbitals overlap with each other in the region where density of electrons is high, then molecular orbitals are formed. Overlap of the atomic orbitals determines the efficiency of the interaction between the atomic orbitals.

Energy of bonding molecular orbitals is less than the nonbonding molecular orbitals.

To determine: The definition of molecular orbitals, their comparison with atomic orbitals and the significance of the shape of bonding and antibonding orbitals in the description of their energy.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

A molecular orbital describes the probability of an electron in a particular region. They are formed by the combination of atomic orbitals of atoms in a molecule. It is the result of interactions between the atomic orbitals that have similar energy and symmetry. There can be addition or subtraction of the orbitals which indicates the type of interference.

Atomic orbitals can be named as s,p,d,f while there are two types of molecular orbitals which are bonding and antibonding molecular orbital.

In the bonding orbitals, most of the electron density is between the nuclei of the bonded atoms

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 4 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 4 - Which of the following would you expect to be more...Ch. 4 - Arrange the following molecules from most to least...Ch. 4 - Which is the more correct statement: The methane...Ch. 4 - Compare and contrast the MO model with the local...Ch. 4 - What are the relationships among bond order, bond...Ch. 4 - Which of the following statements is/are true?...Ch. 4 - Give one example of a compound having a linear...Ch. 4 - In the hybrid orbital model, compare and contrast ...Ch. 4 - Give the expected hybridization for the molecular...Ch. 4 - In the molecular orbital mode l, compare and...Ch. 4 - Why are d orbitals sometimes used to form hybrid...Ch. 4 - The atoms in a single bond can rotate about the...Ch. 4 - Compare and contrast bonding molecular orbitals...Ch. 4 - What modification to the molecular orbital model...Ch. 4 - Why does the molecular orbital model do a better...Ch. 4 - The three NO bonds in NO3 are all equivalent in...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure (including bond...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure (including bond...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure and bond angles...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure and bond angles...Ch. 4 - There are several molecular structures based on...Ch. 4 - Two variations of the octahedral geometry (see...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure (including bond...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure (including bond...Ch. 4 - State whether or not each of the following has a...Ch. 4 - The following electrostatic potential diagrams...Ch. 4 - Which of the molecules in Exercises 21 and 22 have...Ch. 4 - Which of the molecules in Exercises 27 and 28 have...Ch. 4 - Write Lewis structures and predict the molecular...Ch. 4 - Write Lewis structures and predict whether each of...Ch. 4 - Consider the following Lewis structure where E is...Ch. 4 - Consider the following Lewis structure where E is...Ch. 4 - The molecules BF3, CF4, CO2, PF5, and SF6 are all...Ch. 4 - Two different compounds have the formula XeF2Cl2....Ch. 4 - Use the localized electron model to describe the...Ch. 4 - Use the localized electron model to describe the...Ch. 4 - Use the localized electron model to describe the...Ch. 4 - Use the localized electron model to describe the...Ch. 4 - The space-filling models of ethane and ethanol are...Ch. 4 - The space-filling models of hydrogen cyanide and...Ch. 4 - Give the expected hybridization of the central...Ch. 4 - Give the expected hybridization of the central...Ch. 4 - Give the expected hybridization of the central...Ch. 4 - Give the expected hybridization of the central...Ch. 4 - For each of the following molecules, write the...Ch. 4 - For each of the following molecules or ions that...Ch. 4 - Why must all six atoms in C2H4 lie in the same...Ch. 4 - The allene molecule has the following Lewis...Ch. 4 - Indigo is the dye used in coloring blue jeans. The...Ch. 4 - Urea, a compound formed in the liver, is one of...Ch. 4 - Biacetyl and acetoin are added to margarine to...Ch. 4 - Many important compounds in the chemical industry...Ch. 4 - Two molecules used in the polymer industry are...Ch. 4 - Hot and spicy foods contain molecules that...Ch. 4 - One of the first drugs to be approved for use in...Ch. 4 - The antibiotic thiarubin-A was discovered by...Ch. 4 - Consider the following molecular orbitals formed...Ch. 4 - Sketch the molecular orbital and label its type (...Ch. 4 - Which of the following are predicted by the...Ch. 4 - Which of the following are predicted by the...Ch. 4 - Using the molecular orbital model, write electron...Ch. 4 - Consider the following electron configuration:...Ch. 4 - Using molecular orbital theory, explain why the...Ch. 4 - Using the molecular orbital model to describe the...Ch. 4 - The transport of O2 in the blood is carried out by...Ch. 4 - A Lewis structure obeying the octet rule can be...Ch. 4 - Using the molecular orbital model, write electron...Ch. 4 - Using the molecular orbital model, write electron...Ch. 4 - In which of the following diatomic molecules would...Ch. 4 - In terms of the molecular orbital model, which...Ch. 4 - Show how two 2p atomic orbitals can combine to...Ch. 4 - Show how a hydrogen 1s atomic orbital and a...Ch. 4 - Use Figs. 4-54 and 4-55 to answer the following...Ch. 4 - The diatomic molecule OH exists in the gas phase....Ch. 4 - Acetylene (C2H2) can be produced from the reaction...Ch. 4 - Describe the bonding in NO+, NO, and NO, using...Ch. 4 - Describe the bonding in the O3 molecule and the...Ch. 4 - Describe the bonding in the CO32 ion using the...Ch. 4 - Draw the Lewis structures, predict the molecular...Ch. 4 - Vitamin B6 is an organic compound whose deficiency...Ch. 4 - Two structures can be drawn for cyanuric acid: a....Ch. 4 - What do each of the following sets of...Ch. 4 - What do each of the following sets of...Ch. 4 - Aspartame is an artificial sweetener marketed...Ch. 4 - Using bond energies from Table 3-3, estimate the...Ch. 4 - The three most stable oxides of carbon are carbon...Ch. 4 - Refer back to the formal charge Exercises 99 and...Ch. 4 - Which of the following molecules have net dipole...Ch. 4 - The strucrure of TeF5 is Draw a complete Lewis...Ch. 4 - Complete the following resonance structures for...Ch. 4 - The N2O molecule is linear and polar. a. On the...Ch. 4 - Describe the bonding in the first excited state of...Ch. 4 - Using an MO energy-level diagram, would you expect...Ch. 4 - Show how a dxz. atomic orbital and a pz, atomic...Ch. 4 - What type of molecular orbital would result from...Ch. 4 - Consider three molecules: A, B, and C. Molecule A...Ch. 4 - The formulas of several chemical substances are...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and...Ch. 4 - Draw the Lewis structures for SO2, PCl3, NNO, COS,...Ch. 4 - Draw the Lewis structures for TeCl4, ICl5, PCl5,...Ch. 4 - A variety of chlorine oxide fluorides and related...Ch. 4 - Pelargondin is the molecule responsible for the...Ch. 4 - Complete a Lewis structure for the compound shown...Ch. 4 - Which of the following statements concerning SO2...Ch. 4 - Consider the molecular orbital electron...Ch. 4 - Place the species B2+ , B2, and B2 in order of...Ch. 4 - The compound NF3 is quite stable, but NCl3 is very...Ch. 4 - Predict the molecular structure for each of the...Ch. 4 - Consider the following computer-generated model of...Ch. 4 - Cholesterol (C27liu;O) has the following...Ch. 4 - Cyanamide (H2NCN), an important industrial...Ch. 4 - As compared with CO and O2, CS and S2 are very...Ch. 4 - Values of measured bond energies may vary greatly...Ch. 4 - Use the MO model to explain the bonding in BeH2....Ch. 4 - Bond energy has been defined in the text as the...Ch. 4 - Arrange the following from lowest to highest...Ch. 4 - Use the MO model to determine which of the...Ch. 4 - Given that the ionization energy of F2 is 290...Ch. 4 - Carbon monoxide (CO) forms bonds to a variety of...Ch. 4 - The space-filling model for benzoic acid, a food...Ch. 4 - As the bead engineer of your starship in charge of...Ch. 4 - A flask containing gaseous N2 is irradiated with...Ch. 4 - Determine the molecular structure and...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
LDL, a class of lipoprotein, delivers triglycerides and cholesterol from the liver to the bodys tissues. T F

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

How do eating disorders affect health?

Understanding Nutrition (MindTap Course List)

A rubber ball is dropped onto the floor. What force causes the ball to bounce?

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Use the kinetic theory to explain why a gas fills its container.

Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Foundations and Connections