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62 Aldehyder

Decent Essays
Esmeralda Curiel
Organic Chemistry
November 11, 2014

Experiment 62 – The Aldehyde Enigma

INTRODUCTION

In the Cannizaro reaction an aldehyde is simultaneously reduced into its primary alcohol form and also oxidized into it 's carboxylic acid form. The purpose of this experiment is to isolate, purify and identify compounds 1 and 2 which contain 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, methanol, and aqueous potassium hydroxide. Compounds 1 and 2 are purified by crystallization. . The purified product will be characterized by IR spectroscopy and melting point.

As detailed in Pavia 's Organic Laboratory techniques the reaction is expected to proceed via the following reaction: Aqueous
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For the organic layer, we had a melting point range of 240-243°C. For the IR spectra, we did note the C-Cl bond although there was not an OH bond present.

ANALYSIS

The reaction involves a nucleophilic acyl substitution on an aldehyde, with the leaving group concurrently attacking another aldehyde in the second step. First the Potassium hydroxide attacks a carbonyl, which forms a tetahedral intermediate which then collapses when attacked by another hydroxide. The carbonyl is formed again when its hydride attacks another carbonyl. In the final step of the reaction, the acid and alkoxide ions formed exchange a proton. In the presence of a very high concentration of base, the aldehyde first forms a doubly charged anion from which a hydride ion is transferred to the second molecule of aldehyde to form carboxylate and alkoxide ions. Subsequently, the alkoxide ion acquires a proton from the solvent.

4- chlorobenzoic acid which was the aqueous layer has a theoretical melting point of 240-243°C, the organic layer, 4-chlorobenzyl alcohol has a theoretical melting point of 68-71°C. During our experiment we were unable to collect any data for the organic
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