Aortic stenosis—aortic valve stenosis— is caused by a narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve which leads to obstruction of the outflow of the left ventricle. Aortic stenosis is uncommon in patients under the age of 50. The most common cause in adults within industrialized countries is due to aortic valve calcification. Compared to any other cardiac diseases stenosis of the aortic valve is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Some of the more uncommon causes of this deadly disease include congenital heart disease, rheumatic fever, and radiation. Patients with increased age, increased low density lipoprotein (LDL), increased lipoprotein A, hypertension, and smoking history have a higher risk of developing a stenotic valve. Patients suffering from aortic stenosis often are asymptotic until more of the advanced symptoms develop. At this time, they may present the “classic triad symptoms,” which include (1) angina, (2) syncope, and (3) heart failure. There are also some broad symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea (usually with exertion), swollen ankles, difficulty exercising, or palpitations. Physical examination provides valuable insight into the diagnosis of aortic stenosis. Findings on physical examination can be confirmed through non-invasive two-dimensional Doppler echocardiogram, which is the gold standard for aortic stenosis. However, other imaging modalities for diagnosis and treatment options of this debilitating disease will be discussed in this
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AS can occur in the congenital period or later in life, but is more common in adults due to lack of exercise, and nutrition causing calcium buildup. If it is congenital it will occur within the first eight weeks of pregnancy, which the cause is unknown. In a child with AS, the pressure is much higher than normal in the left chamber pumping. Blood that has leaked back into the left ventricle through the valve in between heartbeats, causing the ventricle to be enlarged. There are three stages of AS. Stage A occurs in patients with bicuspid aortic valve or aortic sclerosis who are symptom free but are at risk for AS. In stage B people have progressive AS with mild or moderate calcify valve leaflets, leaflets mobility, or mild or
It was established that the patient’s symptoms were due to an aortic regurgitation this was confirmed by echocardiogram. The use of the SOAPIER model is an effective means of providing rationale for a holistic clinical decision making. The findings and treatment options were discussed in a multidisciplinary meeting including Mr Jones and family. The family were informed that surgery was the safest treatment option. Complications that could happen with or without surgery were also explained ensuring that the patient had adequate understanding to make a valid choice about his treatment. Mr Jones agreed that a replacement of the aortic valve with a mechanical valve was necessary, thus it last for more than twenty years or more . Mr Jones
Aortic valve stenosis is a disease that is based on a defect in the heart. It allows backflow in blood and can lead to death. Aortic valve stenosis has at least four types bicuspid, tricuspid, pulmonary and mitral stenosis. They all have the same effect on the aortic valve and almost the same symptoms. Each one is referring to a swelling, subtraction or the shape of the leaflets. As your body try’s to function with aortic valve stenosis it, will make it pretty hard for you to do activities. Your body will have to pump harder for blood to get around your body. This means working or exercising hard becomes arduous. You will become tired faster and can faint much more easily.
The general term includes a wide range of cardiovascular issues: included would be heart rhythm abnormalities, arteries hardening, congenital heart defects, and coronary artery disease and heart infections. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of medical death in the United States. Blocked or narrowed blood vessels and arteries can and will cause heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular. (1)
Methods: we prospectively enrolled 30 patients who had moderate rheumatic aortic regurgitation associated with pure rheumatic mitral stenosis in 15 patients ( group S) and 15 patients with pure rheumatic mitral incompetence ( group R). Quantification of the degree of the aortic incompetence done by echocardiography using the percentage of the width of the regurgitant get to the width of the left ventricular outflow tract ( LVOT). All patients had mitral valve surgery through a median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. The follow-up of the patients done over one year period by both clinical and echocardiography to estimate the progression of the degree of aortic incompetence postoperatively.
Aortic Stenosis is recognised as the most prevalent form of valvular heart disease in the ageing population. Increasing life expectancy has resulted in a significant increase in the number of older patients being referred for consideration of an aortic valve replacement. Although surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR), or open heart surgery, remains the best type of treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, other treatment options include: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI); balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV); medical therapy. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, also referred to as Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement, is one of the least invasive types of aortic valve replacement surgeries. TAVi is important to
Some lifestyle-related conditions and decisions increase the likelihood of a person having heart disease. Some examples are diabetes, overweight and obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity and excessive consumption of alcohol. High blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (BAD) cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. LBD is considered to be "bad" cholesterol because having high levels can lead to accumulation in the arteries, which can cause heart disease and stroke. If you lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, and if you do not smoke, you will reduce your chances of having heart disease. Now, in case of emergency, angioplasty which is the best treatment needs to get done. In this case we need to kake in consideration that not all hospitals are capable to made the process, so we need to be aware of our options. After the angioplasty you should take a daily medication, which will help your heart adapt to the implanted stents and they will not close again, a phenomenon known as restenosis, his medication should not be forgotten any day in order to minimize future
The patient major symptom of chest pain, accompanied by SOB and diaphoresis prompted him to seek help in the emergency room (ER). He had this similar symptoms that eased up with rest for the past six months. However, in the past four days the symptoms became severe and unbearable. The patient returns to the hospital for follow up visit regarding the stent placement and review of risk factors associated with angina. The patient is still apprehensive of experiencing another episode of angina.
“Valvular heart disease is responsible for more than 22 000 deaths each year in the United States. (Patel, Green et al 2014). Thousands of people live long and healthy lives not knowing the they have valvular disease. Due to this, majority of these deaths are from the elderly population. Those who have succumbed to this disease, apart from those who attained it due to congenital reasons, usually have another disease of the heart or vascular system such as coronary disease or hypertension. The risk factors “ include male sex, smoking, hypertension, elevated low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), coronary atherosclerosis, congenital bicuspid valve, and advanced age ( Patel, Green et al 2014). According to the article, men are at a higher risk for valvular disease than women, however, advanced age is the most significant risk factor for attaining this disease. When patients become symptomatic, the treatments of valvular stenosis become necessary in order to increase the quantity of blood needed for systemic circulation, thus prolonging quality of life.
In aortic insufficiency, blood in the aorta leaks through the aortic valve after it has closed. As a result, the heart works harder to pump the same amount of blood through the valve as it would if the valve closed tightly. When left untreated, aortic insufficiency causes enlargement and weakening of the left ventricle. When this happens,
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as heart disease, is defined as the “narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart” (Milto, Odle, p.1). The main cause of CAD is an accumulation of fatty materials on the lining of arteries. Once the fatty materials line the inner arteries, it restricts blood flow to the heart. When blood is can no longer long flow to the heart, it causes a heart attack. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in both women and men in the United States. The American Heart Association states that since 1990 deaths caused by the coronary artery disease have decreased, however, “more than 40,000 people still died from this disease in 2000” and about 13
With the increased consumption of fast-food and poor lifestyle choices, we have become an increasingly obese nation. For this reason, diseases such as cardiovascular disease have been on the rise. Cardiovascular disease is the combined term for a number of diseases concerning the heart and the blood vessels. Many of these life threatening diseases are related to a condition called atherosclerosis. The condition creates plaque build-up on the walls of the blood vessels. The plaque effects the flow of blood making it harder and can lead to blood clots which stops the flow of blood altogether. The two main effects to this are heart attacks and strokes however, other types of cardiovascular disease includes complete heart failure, arrhythmia
In addition, as mentioned before the American Heart Association states four types of cardiovascular diseases. Heart valve problems, arrhythmia, heart attacks and strokes are all affiliated with this deadly disease. If an individual is suffering with a heart valve problem, medication and heart valve surgery is provided. Arrhythmia is treated with medications, receiving a pacemaker and cardiac defibrillation. Heart attacks are treated also with medications, angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery to improve blood supply entering the heart muscle. Lastly, medication is provided to treat strokes. Another treatment available for strokes are undergoing a carotid endarterectomy
The study hoped to find an acceptable correlation with abnormal or normal Doppler ultrasound and venography. The results were not sufficient to determine that Doppler ultrasound alone was an adequate tool to determine stent malfunction consistently. Future objectives are for non-invasive Doppler testing to be sensitive and reproducible enough to detect early stent malfunction even before symptoms occur.29 Boyer,23 reports that Doppler ultrasound has sensitivity and specificity rates from 70%-100% in cases of stent stenosis, but it is still not ideal. Ultrasound requires a technologist and radiologist with experience and must be conducted with consistent parameters to obtain dependable results. Most of the trials recommend follow up studies including some or all of the following: venography, Doppler ultrasound combined with two-dimensional ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized