Aortic Stenosis Aortic Valve Stenosis-

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Aortic stenosis—aortic valve stenosis— is caused by a narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve which leads to obstruction of the outflow of the left ventricle. Aortic stenosis is uncommon in patients under the age of 50. The most common cause in adults within industrialized countries is due to aortic valve calcification. Compared to any other cardiac diseases stenosis of the aortic valve is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Some of the more uncommon causes of this deadly disease include congenital heart disease, rheumatic fever, and radiation. Patients with increased age, increased low density lipoprotein (LDL), increased lipoprotein A, hypertension, and smoking history have a higher risk of developing a stenotic valve. Patients suffering from aortic stenosis often are asymptotic until more of the advanced symptoms develop. At this time, they may present the “classic triad symptoms,” which include (1) angina, (2) syncope, and (3) heart failure. There are also some broad symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea (usually with exertion), swollen ankles, difficulty exercising, or palpitations. Physical examination provides valuable insight into the diagnosis of aortic stenosis. Findings on physical examination can be confirmed through non-invasive two-dimensional Doppler echocardiogram, which is the gold standard for aortic stenosis. However, other imaging modalities for diagnosis and treatment options of this debilitating disease will be discussed in this

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