Artificial School Case Study

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EMPIRICAL SCHOOL
This school was founded by Ernest Dale. This school of thought is also called case approach or management experience approach. Dale stated that management is nothing but the study of the experience of the managers. Knowledge gained through experience can be applied for problem solving and decision making.
According to this approach, experience is the best teacher.
1. Managerial experience includes the study of success and failures in various situations.
2. Managerial experience can be passed from one person to another.
3. By studying the experience of different managers, management theories can be formulated.
4. Experience can be taught in classroom as case study.
Empirical school lays emphasis on experience only. it misses other factors.
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Transformation is essential for its survival. System takes inputs from environment, act as mediator and transform inputs into output, and give these back to environment. Thus three things inputs, mediator and output are necessary for transformation.
Management as a system: Features of management as a system are
Management is an open system: Management is essentially an open system. It has three elements of open system; input, mediator and output. As is clear in fig 4.1, it takes inputs from environment, transform these to products or services and give these outputs back to environment. It also takes feedback from environment to improve its services further. Feedback can also be in the form of changes in laws, markets, govt. policies or consumer preferences.

Management is a social system. Human are essential part of management. so unlike a biological or mechanical system , management is a social system.
Adaptive nature. Being an open system, survival of organization is dependent on its adjustment to changes in environment. Management strives hard to bring essential changes in organization so that not only it adapts well and survives the change but also grows in spite of
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