According to Xin, Yu and Shaver (2014:205) “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD is a developmental neuropsychiatrie disorder with a variety of symptoms ranging from attentional impairments, impulsivity and motor overactivity.” ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorders. (W Xin, J Yu and D Shaver, 2014)
Dilawari and Tripathi (2013:365) from Indian Journal maintain that “his disorder has been described neither as a disease nor as an emotional disorder but a cluster of personality traits that appear normally in all children but more intensely in some children.”
ADHD can be classified into two categories, namely inattention and a combination of hyperactive and impulsive behaviour. (Dilawari & Tripathi, 2013)
Boys were …show more content…
(Dilawari & Tripathi, 2013)
Modification of tasks could involve reducing the task length, dividing the task into subunits and setting goals for the child to complete in shorter time intervals, using more stimulation (colours or textures), giving clear instructions and modifying how you deliver and the method of instruction depending on the learners individual learning style. (Dilawari & Tripathi, 2013). Dilawari and Tripathi (2013:367) claim that these methods “focus on increasing the structure and organisation of the childs environment, making goals and tasks appear more manageable to reduce frustration and increase persistence, and increasing relevant stimulation to help sustain attention.”
Choice making allows the child a certain level of individual decision-making and allows the child to have personal control over the nature of that task. (Dilawari & Tripathi, 2013)
The way a child with ADHD behaviours changes as a child grows up. (Henderson, 2008). A preschool child could show signs of gross motor overactivity – always climbing or running and always switching from one activity to the next. (Henderson, 2008). Slightly older children could be very restless having to sit for too long and may start to play with their tables, chairs or anything else they can find. (Henderson, 2008) They may also always struggle to finish their
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ADHD is a very common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood. It is usually diagnosed in late childhood, around the age of seven by the teachers. The symptoms are typical during ages 3-6 and if not treated properly becomes chronic and persists even after entering adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, staying organized and controlling impulsive behaviors. It is very difficult to diagnose and when undiagnosed the children can grow to be mislabeled as trouble makers in their adulthood.
First step to understanding this disorder is to understand how it is diagnosed and what criteria is required. There are 18 possible symptoms for ADHD that are divided into two categories, inattentive and hyperactivity/impulsive (Barkley 1997). In order to be diagnosed with ADHD an individual must show at least 6 symptoms in one category for 6 months (Barkley 1997). Depending on what category the symptoms were in the child would also be assigned to a subtype, either: predominantly inattentive or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive; but if the individual met criteria for both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive then the child would be diagnoses with ADHD combined (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 2013). Some of the symptoms that fall under the inattentive subtype are inability to stay focused on tasks (i.e. during lectures, conversations,
ADHD Research Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time. (1) Inattention, (2) hyperactivity, and (3) impulsivity (Kirst-Ashman, Zastrow 2004). Children who are inattentive have difficulty focusing on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. Children who are hyperactive show high levels of physical activity, almost always seeming to be in motion. Children who are impulsive have difficulty curbing their reactions and don’t do a good job of thinking before they act.
In addition to symptoms of ADHD being present by the age of seven the symptoms must affect the person’s life in a number of settings. In addition the symptoms have to not be explained by another mental disorder. If it only occurs alongside a psychotic mood disorder it is not considered ADHD. Inattention in ADHD is classified as making easily avoidable mistakes and ignoring details, usually do to not paying attention. It can happen in any number of settings( Surman, 2013). For example an accountant suffering from some of the innatention aspects of ADHD may not notice they forget to put a decimal point in a number resulting in a much higher number then shoud have been expected. The average adult may catch the mistake but someone someone with at least part of the innatetion aspect will likely move on without a thought in the world. Hyperactivity is demonstrated by inabiltiy to sit still and the need to get up from one's seat to move around. Impulsivity shows itself in a person's inabilty to resist acting on their urges. Usually the person will jump in front of others in a conversation. the person may at random pick up things and start messing with them. For a person to be diagnosised with ADHD a number of the DSM-IV-TR's critera must be met.
According to the research conducted by Dr. Laura A. King, the Frederick A. Middlebush Professor of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri, Columbia, “ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders of childhood, in which individuals show at least one of the following: impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention.”
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder otherwise known as ADHD is a common condition that affects kids and can continue into adulthood. Some of the effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are problems paying attention, unable to follow directions, and easily bored or frustrated with any tasks. These types of behaviors are generally common in children, but they occur more often than usual and are more severe in children with ADHD. The behaviors that are common with ADHD interfere with a child's ability to function at school and at home when they need to be paying attention. Adults with ADHD have a difficult time with organizational skills, goal setting, time management, and employment. They may also have problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addictions.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD which is often referred to as childhood hyperactivity, it 's a severe and chronic disorder for children. It is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, and affects 3% to 5% of the school-age population. Boys outnumber girls three or more to one. Children with ADHD can experience many behavioral difficulties that often manifest in the form of inattention, being easily distracted, being impulsive, and hyperactivity. As a result, children with ADHD may develop emotional, social, developmental, academic, and family problems because of the frustrations and problems they are constantly experiencing. (Shea)
Attention Deficit with hyper activity Disorder commonly known as ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder usually diagnosed in childhood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. It appears to be more common in boys than it is girls. This Disorder is more common in boys than in girls and approximately five in one hundred children are affected (Busing). There are three subtypes: Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive, combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive (most children have the combined type of ADHD)(nimh.nih.gov).The age of onset of ADHD is usually in preschool to early elementary school years.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be described as a disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS). At the current time, the cause of ADHD is still unknown (Mohammadi & Akhondzadeh, 2007). It is considered one of the greatest prevalent chronic health disorders that affect children (ages less than or equal to 17) and rates continue to rise (Mohammadi & Akhondzadeh, 2007). Presently, ADHD has been medically managed by two categories of medications which can be classified as stimulants or nonstimulants. According to the Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project (CMAP) (2007) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015), stimulants continue to be first line choice in treating ADHD and show a
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioral disorder that affects school aged children with a high degree of inattention, excessive hyperactivity, impulsivity or a combination of any of these. In order for a child to be diagnosed with ADHD, there must be two different environments in which the child has displayed his or her symptoms and it must occur before the child is twelve years of age (Halter, 2014). Children have a high comorbidity level with developmental, learning and psychiatric problems. There are three types of ADHD; inattentive type, hyperactive-impulsive type and combination type. With inattentive type the child displays disorganization, is unable to complete tasks, becomes easily bored, and
According to Foley (2010), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were categorized into two groups with nine behaviors associated with each category of ADHD. Behaviors with the inattentive category include failing to pay attention, and making careless mistakes, difficulty keeping that attention, not following through or listening, difficulty organizing, low task persistence, easily distracted, forgetful and losing things. Behaviors associated with the category of hyperactivity include a child being out of their seat and fidgeting, running and climbing excessively,
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a common mental disorder whose definition continues to change. Most clinicians make a diagnosis off of a list of symptoms in three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. There are three different subtypes of ADHD: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type if both the inattentive criteria and the hyperactive/impulsive criteria have been present for the past six months; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type if the inattention criteria are met but the hyperactive/impulsive criteria has not been present for the past six months; and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive
ADHD is an abbreviation for attention deficit/hyper activity disorder. It is commonly referred to as a psychiatric disorder in need of therapy. The origination of the disease is in the neuro-physiological brain construct, and the main cause of the disorder is considered to be genetic (Wilson, 2012). Many children with ADHD struggle with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention (Unnever, Cullen, & Pratt, 2003). According to McNamara, Vervaeke, and Willoughby (2008), “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder among children and adolescents. It affects between 3% and 5% of school age children” (p. 38). In a
“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition affecting children and adults that is characterized by problems with attention, impulsivity, and overactivity” (CHADD). “It is a neurobiological disorder that affect 3-7 percent of school age children and may be seen as before the age of 7. The current diagnostic label is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, however, in the past several other names have been used, such as brain-damaged, minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinetic impulsive disorder, and attention deficit disorder (CHADD). ADHD is a controversial disorder. Some understand it to be a true disability, while others believe “good teaching and discipline at home resolve the problems” (Kauffman 2005).