Pregnancy for the human female is a period of time that is celebrated in most cultures. However, reaching the point where a pregnancy successfully results in the birth of one or more healthy children can be quite difficult. Wilcox et al. (1988) provided the conservative estimate that thirty-one percent of all pregnancies were unintentionally lost, with twenty-two percent of pregnancies being lost before they were clinically detected using delicate detection of hCG hormone levels. Since the rate of spontaneous to be abortion this high when healthcare is arguably the best it has ever been in all human history, it is worth examining the possibility that spontaneous abortion might carry an evolutionary advantage for humans that doesn’t make sense in a simply modern context. Before looking at the possible factors that lead to spontaneous abortion, it would be beneficial to examine the parameters that make an atypical pregnancy. It is most simple to define a regular human pregnancy as the birth of one healthy child per gestation. A common variation that occurs in human pregnancy is the gestation of multiple fetuses. In research by Robinson and Caines (1977), it was discovered that more twins are conceived than were born. This study found nearly half of its sample of thirty women, all of whom were diagnosed with a double pregnancy during the first trimester of their pregnancy, give birth to a single child. While the health risks a mother can incur when gestating twins seem
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Women may have an abortion for a variety of reasons, but in general they choose abortion because a pregnancy at that time is in some way wrong for them. “Abortion is the removal of a fetus from the uterus before it is mature enough to live on its own” (Kuechler 1996). When this happens spontaneously we call it a miscarriage. Induced abortion is brought about deliberately by a medical procedure that ends pregnancy. Legal abortion, carried out by trained medical practitioners, is one of the most common and safest surgical procedures. “About 1.5 million American women choose to have induced abortions each year. Less than 1% of all abortion patients experience a major complication associated with the procedure” (Kuechler 1996).
Immediately after birth, the newborn has an identification band put on. One band is put on the ankle, one on the wrist. The newborn has footprints done immediately. Included on the footprint sheet are the newborn’s name, sex, DOB, time of birth, and mother’s health record.
Abortion, for the vast majority of people is not a subject that is easy to talk about. According to the World Health Organization, out of the 211 million pregnancies, 46 million end up in abortion and 18 million of those abortions are done in what WHO considers unsafe conditions (World Health Report, 2007). Unsafe conditions are defined by WHO as, “ abortions performed by people lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking the minimal medical standards, or both” (World Health Report, 2007). The maternal death rate for women who have unsafe abortions is 350 out of 100,000, and there are other complications that are not fatal but can lead to disease or disability (World Health Report, 2007).
In America, abortion is an age old argument and most Americans have sided with being either Pro-Choice or Pro-Life. But what happens when it comes down to aborting only one of the fetus twins or triplets? In David J. Ayers article, “Abortion’s Slippery Slope: The Two-Minus-One Pregnancy”, Ayers explains the rare medical procedure when a women wants to abort one of her fetus twins. This twin reduction is a way for mothers to use their constitutional right of choosing how many babies she wants. But what are the basic medical ethics when it comes to choosing which baby is aborted? The choice comes to the decision of the doctor and the mother, the baby’s location, sex, and health. Abortion in itself is a battle with a mother’s conscience. Having to choose, is a lifelong choice that can affect a mother in this conscience struggle.
Premature birth has been linked to a vast array of lungs problems, the earlier the birth the greater risk of health complications(Davis R and Mychaliska G, 2013). A majority of the health problems will affect the infant for the rest of their life (Davis R and Mychaliska G, 2013). Infants born between the canalicular and the saccular period (week 25) have lung development that is unsuitable for gas exchange (Davis R and Mychaliska G, 2013). Two major complications that arise with undeveloped lungs is bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (Mahgoub L. et al. 2017).
There are special times in life when the opportunity to witness the journey of another forever influences your own story. For me, this privilege came through my sweet neighbor and Healthy Birth Day, Inc. co-founder, Kerry Morlan and her husband, Luke. On May 19th, 2003, Luke and Kerry’s baby girl, Grace Biondi-Morlan, was born still. The heartache of true loss was difficult to observe and words of condolences seemed too little. Amazingly, the path from an unimaginable loss led to the birth of new friendships amongst 5 moms who shared not only their pain, but a real passion to save babies. Consequently, this passion led to the creation of Healthy Birth Day, Inc. and eventually the life-saving Count the Kicks campaign. As the years passed
First, an abortion is more dangerous than childbirth. Women do not realize how dangerous is abortion. According to the Guttmacher institute (AGI) 47000 women die from complications of unsafe abortion each year. Also some researchers said that women who does abortion they will face 2.3 times higher risk of having cervical cancer, compared to women with on history of abortion. This increased cancer rates post-aborted women may be linked to the unnatural disruption of the hormonal changes which accompany pregnancy and untreated cervical damages or to increased stress and the negative impact of stress on the immune system. In addition, the women experience the loss of their fertility or increase in miscarriages after abortion. For example, my elder sister has tow daughter, and she was pregnant again but she could
Women have right to control their own bodies and decisions. As human free will, women can determine their decision for their future. It is sometimes inevitable to maintain their lifestyle that they have before they become pregnant. Although pregnant is the responsibility of both, woman and man, as a result of having sex, women should give up their career or study because pregnancy and childbirth are not as easy at all as just people generally think. Furthermore, women who have the abortion are in difficult condition, which is the unwanted. The Guttmacher institute research said that unintended or unplanned pregnancies were 41 percent of national pregnancies (Abortion Worldwide: A Decade of Uneven Progress). This high rate is from the unavoidable inability of
One woman, who will be referred to by the pseudonym Jen for the purposes of this paper, had three live births over the course of seven years in two locations with three different doctors. These experiences can be analyzed through the biosocial model of childbirth as described by Brigitte Jordan and Robbie Davis-Floyd (1993) in Birth in Four Cultures, which consists of four features: the cultural definition of birth, preparation for birth, attendants and support systems, and birth territory. Many factors of Jen’s birth experiences align with the standard for birth in the United States outlined by Jordan, however, some aspects of her experience differ both from Jordan’s analysis of birth in the United States, and between the individual birth experiences. Through a comparative analysis according to the biosocial model of childbirth of all her birth experiences and the standard that Jordan found, Jen’s experiences can be understood as both examples of the United States’ treatment of childbirth at the time they occurred, and an illustration of the ways in which individual experience does not necessarily conform to the cultural standards in all instances but rather are shaped by factors unique to the situation such as time, place, and people.
When neonates are born—both prematurely and at term gestation—they undergo several different painful procedures during their subsequent stay in the hospital depending on their physiological needs. Some of the painful procedures that these babies undergo include intravenous (IV) catheter insertion, for fluids and medications; heel lances, for blood tests and glucose checks; orogastric and nasogastric tube insertion for feedings and medication administration, as well as many others. Past research regarding the pain perception of preterm neonates had concluded that these newborns have a reduced pain perception due to the immaturity of their neurological pain response system (Gibbins & Stevens, 2003). It was because of this misconception
(1993), every year the number of woman who chooses abortion is about 1.5 million in United States. Almost half of American women get unplanned pregnancy, and 54% of these end in abortion (Finer LB & Zolna MR, 2011). Nearly one fifth of pregnancies end in abortion (Jones RK &
Partial-birth abortions in the third trimester, and the recent “day-after” or the RU-486 pill, now add a new attitude on the abortion issue. Partial-birth abortions and abortions in the third trimester are exceedingly controversial, because they involve the termination and/or expulsion of an actual fetus from the womb, whereas many early-prenatal abortions involve the expulsion of the embryo. In some countries, and for a while in America, partial-birth abortions meant that the baby was breached halfway through the womb, and then its neck was broken, which killed the baby instantly. Since then, the United States has banned it as a result of the many infuriated pro-life and even some pro-choice members who found it to be extremely inhumane. The RU-486 pill sends messages telling the brain that the woman that was inseminated, was already pregnant, and that the ovum that had been created, is removed because the body believes it is already impregnated. These operations raise many of the same problems as abortion itself.
According to the findings by Mariotti (2012), the psychosocial and emotional components are an integral part of every woman’s pregnancy, and she can make decisions of whether to sustain life in her own uterus or end it (p. 269). At the same time, numerous studies have questioned the personhood of the fetus to provide well-evidenced approaches to evaluation of its social and legal status. Does a woman provide it with all necessary resources and substances like a donor? Does she have a right to extract it from her body in case she does not want to give it life, has some health care issues that put her and the baby at risk, or carries a fetus that was the result of a rape? All those questions are easier to ask than answer, but women should have the right to do with their body everything they want.
Birth of a child can be such a happy time, especially when the little one is very healthy. We all have seen the movies when a new child is born, some of us are lucky to see it first hand. Some of us do get goose bumps, me being one of them. It is just so exciting to see that little life come out of what has been in that big belly for nine months. We sometimes refer to the birth of a child as labor. If only it was as easy as the name sounds. However, it is not. There are three main stages in birth. The first stage is the longest stage that can last 12 to 14 hours with the first birth, and later births are shorter. Dilation and effacement of the cervix take place here. That is when the uterine contractions gradually become more frequent and