On the other hand, addition of probiotic had no significant effect (P>0.05) on shell hardness and shell thickness and these were expected which have already been reported (Haddadin et al., 1996; Chen and Chen 2003). Although, the increase of albumen quality wasn’t significant (P > 0.05), no reasonable explanation can be offered for the improvement in albumen quality in the microbial additive groups. Jensen et al. (1978) found significant improvements in interior egg quality which measured by Hough Units in hens fed distillers feeds and corn fermentation soluble. Subsequent studies indicated that trace elements was been involved (Jensen and Maurice, 1978). But Tortuero and Fernandez (1995) described that the difference in plasma mineral concentration were not sufficient to implicate supporting the hypothesis that trace elements were improved albumen quality with microbial supplementation. Addition of probiotic had significant effect on egg yolk cholesterol (mg /g of yolk). Haddadin et al. (1996) observed similar results. They reported that inclusion of probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus in different ages (40, 44 and 48 week) affects egg cholesterol in 40 week of production not 44 and 48. These results have already been confirmed by Marks and Washburn (1991) reports.
Blood parameters The effects of dietary AA and LAB supplementation on serum parameters are summarized in Table 3. Serum glucose, ALT and triglyceride were decreased by feeding AA or LAB but not
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The primary purpose of the lab was to test and observe the effects of the process of osmosis on decalcified eggs. Before the process, the initial weights of the eggs were taken and noted. Two eggs were then immersed in a deionized water solution. The same was repeated to the other two solutions of 20% and 40% sucrose. The weights of the eggs were measured after 15 minutes to note the change in mass due to osmosis and again after 60 minutes to take the final measurement. Overall, while some human error might arise in the weighing process, care was taken in handling the eggs and during the weighing process. As such, it was found that the eggs behaved as predicted. It was found that the eggs placed in the hypertonic solution lost
Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate, high protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet all of which to have shown to improve metabolic conditions. The degree of the improvement varies from patient to patient therefore, it is necessary to evaluate each patient based on their only needs and individual metabolic demands. It is recommended that patients with pre-diabetes be made aware of beneficial nutrition intervention. Knowing what diet is best for the patient can significantly help with the risks of developing diabetes type 2. Medical nutrition therapy plays a role at three levels, primary prevention, secondary and tertiary prevention. For the purpose of this paper primary prevention is observed to help aim in delaying or arresting the development of diabetes. Different types of diet have been shown to be associated with improvement in metabolic condition. Modest weight loss has been shown to improve insulin resistance so either a low carbohydrate, low-fat calorie-resistance, or Mediterranean diet may be effective in the short term (Khazrai et al.,
Liver is known as the metabolic port of entry for any endobiotic and xenobiotic substance. The anabolism and catabolism of most of the nutrients are in major performed by the liver. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism by the liver is of significance as the anomalies in metabolism of these nutrients may introduce several types of metabolic syndromes. The protective effects of aqueous green tea extract have been shown on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic and obese rat models . Different nutrients combinations were tested in a long-term feeding in experimental mouse model. Regional and continental food habit and practices are very much different. Effects of Western, vegetarian, and Japanese dietary fat
The influences of underlying health conditions can result in the need for specific nutrients as well as influencing what people are or aren’t able to eat.
This indicates that the metabolism of proteins was apparently affected by Ch.t extract. The improvement on the levels of protein and albumin in the diabetic treated groups show that Ch.t extract have significant effect in glucose and protein level because insulin inhibit gluconeogenesis from protein [ ] or could be due to improvement in renal function. This afﬁrmative agrees with the fact that the weight of skeletal muscles was signiﬁcantly increase in diabetic rats treated with Ch.t extract. The decrease in albumin level documented for diabetic rats may be due to liver massive necrosis, deterioration of liver function, hepatic resistance to insulin and glycogen impairment of oxidative phosphorylation[ ].Under the same experimental conditions serum globulin level revealed an appreciable decrease[ ]. The renal pathogenesis is related to duration of diabetes, the most devastating complication with diabetes is nephropathy[
In this report the focus will be the nutritional aspects of Type 2 Diabetes, although physical activity is a vital attribute to Type 2 Diabetes it will not be the main focus. This report will determine the modifiable and
Nutritional therapy has an effective role in maintaining plasma BCAA (leucine, Isoleucine and Valine) concentrations as close to normal. The goal of nutritional therapy is to reduce toxic metabolites, prevent accumulation of endogenous BCAA and BCKA, Reduce catabolism and Stimulate protein anabolism. This is achieved by restricting dietary BCAA and high caloric enteral or parenteral mixtures including adequate BCAA-free exogenous protein, lipid, CHO, energy, fluid, Valine and Isoleucine (1, 2). Non acutely ill individuals can be managed with a *sick day* guideline that provides detailed instructions for preventing catabolism and monitoring clinical state (3, 4, 5). This reduces intact protein by 50 % - 100 % in 24-48 hours by replacement with
When the 4 eggs were weighed it was found that out of the 4 solutions, 2 were hypotonic and 2 were hypertonic. The mass of 2 of the eggs increased and the other 2 decreased after 60 minutes in the various solutions. Out of the 4, the most hypotonic solution was the distilled water; and the most hypertonic solution was the solution with 2.0M glucose. The
Since atherosclerosis has been identified as an inflammatory disorder, there has been much interest in the effect of n-3 fatty acids on inflammation. Dietary supplementation with ALA significantly decreased inflammatory markers in a study in middle aged men. Hypotensive Effects: Although ALA is a precursor of EPA and DHA, it may have inde-pendent effects on blood pressure and blood
This assignment aims to investigate the importance of Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the human body (NHS Choices), which was also one of the first minerals discovered to be essential to the diet (Strain and Cashman, 2009). Calcium is a well-known mineral; its importance is continually emphasised through advertising and public health publications. The relationship between dairy and Calcium is appreciated by most people and there is a general understanding that calcium is linked to bones. Phillips (2009) states: “Most people know that milk and dairy products are excellent sources of easily absorbed calcium.” The selling point of many dairy products, particularly those aimed at children, is the association of calcium with strong bones, for example, Petis Filous has the slogan “Made with calcium and vitamin D to help bones grow stronger” (Petis Filous). The focus of this essay will be the structure and function of calcium, where it can be obtained from diet, toxicity, deficiency and relationship with vitamin D.
There have made great contribution to the profitability in poultry production affecting the intestinal microbiota, the mucosa and immune system of the host, the protein digestibility, pancreatic secretion, mineral utilization and as a result, the performance. Organic acids action is related to the pH reduction of the intestinal digesta, affecting the gut ecosystem in numerous ways. Intestinal microbiota can be altered because of the remarkable antibacterial activity of organic acids and the growth enhancement of non-pathogenic beneficial microorganisms, due to exclusive competition. Apart from the microbiota, diet supplementation of organic acids has trophic effects on the intestinal mucosa, modifying the morphologic characteristics of intestinal villi and crypts and maintaining epithelial integrity. Diet acidification increases gastric proteolysis and the utilization of proteins and amino acids, affects pancreatic secretions and mineral absorption. There are also reports for an effect on appetite and palatability of the feed. All these properties attributed to organic acids have either a direct or an indirect effect on the performance and health, even though the results presented for poultry lack
Abstract – Yogurt is a product of lactic acid and lactose. In order to produce yogurt, milk is pasteurized (at 45 degrees Celsius) and the inoculum is added followed by incubation. Over a period of 7 days, yoghurt fermentation was attempted using lactobacillus cultures. A liter of milk was supplied and plain yoghurt was used as a starter culture as it contains the necessary bacteria to ferment lactose and produce lactic acid. The milk was added to a flask: then boiled, cooled and inoculated. The milk was incubated for a week and all the while the milk was tested for changes in pH, density, mass and physical changes. The values obtained were then used to determine the growth kinetics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
Fourteen of the subjects dropped out before the conclusion of the study. The subjects were randomized to Chia seed and placebo groups. The placebo was carefully constructed to resemble the Chia seeds except for fiber and ALA content. The Chia seeds and the placebos (25 grams) were administered twice a day, in the morning and evening, with a glass of water. The subjects were advised not to alter their regular diets or exercise routines during the study. In addition, stature and body mass were measured pre- mid, and post-study. Blood work and blood pressure also had pre-and post-study
Nutrition is an extremely crucial subject especially to the high risk groups, the elderly being one of them. Elderly people tend to have reduced immunity, physical mobility, cognitive function and mobility. Therefore without these four basic body functions, the person is likely to have poor quality of life. Whatever we consume contributed a bigger percentage to what ails us therefore, it is essential especially for the high risk group, to consumes foods, which are of, significance to their body and which will safeguard them from loss of normal body function (World Health Organization, 1996). Most elderly tend to take supplementary nutrients since; some of them have poor nutrition patterns brought about by many factors, which will be, looked into broadly in this literature.