Background and Literature Review Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) The phrase cardiovascular disease encompasses all ailments involving the conditions of the heart as well as those of the blood vessels. The major types of CVD prevalent in Australia are coronary heart disease and stroke, together with heart failure/cardiomyopathy. One of the leading causes of mortality in Australia today is cardiovascular disease (CVD) with one in every six Australians affected by the disease resulting in more than 3.7 million people listed as sufferers. The prevalence of contracting CVD increases with age as demonstrated by 35% of Australians whose ages range from 55 to 64 years reported to have a long term CVD condition. The incidence increases to 62% for …show more content…
There are also other important risk factors involved with men experiencing higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than women. The risk of contracting CVD is increased in men whose first degree blood relative has suffered incidence of CVD before the age of 55 years and the same prevails in women whose first degree blood relative has suffered CVD before the age of 65 years. In addition, some ethnic groups exhibit higher rates of CVD than others . There is a tendency for modifiable risk factors to have a noticeable result on CVD prevalence in the community. The relative impact of the disease and injury on the population in Australia 2003, defined 12 risk elements linked to CVD which if brought together would provide answers to 69% of these relative impacts . High blood pressure and high cholesterol ranked highest as the largest contributor. Other contributors come in the nature of lack of physical activities, high body mass, use of tobacco products, and low consumption of fruits and vegetables . The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are summarised as below: Table1 – Modifiable Risk Factors for CVD Behavioural factors Biomedical factors Tobacco smoking High blood pressure insufficient physical activity High blood cholesterol Dietary behaviour Overweight and obesity Excessive alcohol consumption depression Blood Pressure
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Cardiovascular disease is a disease of the circulatory system and involves all diseases of the blood vessels and heart. In the Australian population, the disease impedes and diminishes the supply of blood to the legs, heart, and brain muscles. The International Classification of Disease (ICD) identifies the main types of cardiovascular disease affecting the
The circulatory system which is present in the chest consists of heart and blood vessels such as arteries, veins and capillaries (Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet, 2016). The heart being the centre controls the blood circulation throughout the body receives deoxygenated blood through veins which is then converted into or replaced by the oxygenated blood from the lungs and then pumped out by the heart to different organs of the body through arteries. (Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet, 2016). The diseases that affects the normal function and structure of the circulatory system are called cardiovascular diseases (Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet, 2016). It commonly includes diseases such as stroke, coronary or ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy etc. that may be life-threatening ("Department of Health | Cardiovascular disease", 2016).
Some cases are related to family history, but in my opinion the majority of cases are self-inflicted i.e. they are related to diet and lifestyle and I intend to investigate the factors that contribute towards the development of Coronary Heart Disease. Coronary Heart Disease is caused by the narrowing of the
Cardiovascular disease is the number one leading cause of death in the United States of America affecting eighty one million Americans every day; taking a life every thirty eight seconds which is equal to “two thousand three hundred Americans every day” (book, p. 414). The research shows that women are more at risk of having a heart attack than men. “Each year about 425,000 women have a stroke, that is, 55,000 more than men” (Heart Attack and Stroke: Men vs. Women, p. 7). Indeed, Heart attack is known to kill 1 of every 4 women in the country. (Women and Heart Disease Fact Sheet). “Cardiovascular disease claims more lives each year than the next four leading causes of death combined (cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents and diabetes)” (Donatelle, p. 454) Still, for many women it is unknown that they actually have a higher risk than men to experience a heart disease. (Wolf, Miller, Ko, p. 405). This happens for many reasons, education level, social status, age and racial or ethnic differences.
Cardiovascular disease is a disease that affects both the heart and the blood vessel condition. Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern today because it is the leading cause of death in the United States. One in every three deaths are caused by this disease. You can prevent getting cardiovascular disease by eating healthy, not smoking, being active and exercising, watching your blood pressure, maintaining stress at a healthy level and maintaining good cholesterol levels. The health care in the United States work hard to help fight this disease. They spend about $320 million to help those affected by this disease.
Cardiovascular diseases are diseases which involve the heart or blood vessels, they are in fact the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Cardiovascular diseases include coronary artery disease, or ischaemic heart disease (heart attack), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) and diseases of the aorta and arteries including hypertension and peripheral vascular disease (Mendis, Puska, & Norrving, 2011). They are all due to a disease known as atherosclerosis which affects arteries (George, & Johnson, 2010). There are also other cardiovascular disease that are not related to atherosclerosis, for instance, congenital heart disease caused by abnormal structures of the heart existing at birth, rheumatic heart disease due to Type II hypersensitivity reaction following streptococcal bacteria infection, cardiomyopathies (disorders of the heart muscle) and cardiac arrhythmias (disorders of electrical conduction system of the heart). Among all the cardiovascular diseases, coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease are the first two major contributors to global mortality (Mendis, Puska, & Norrving, 2011).
“Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference? The short answer is often no — health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably (Medline Plus).”
Atherosclerosis is commonly referred to as the principal cause of death in the developed world. Although deaths attributed to CVD have reduced significantly over the last 10 years, atherosclerosis is still one of the leading causes of mortality, both globally and in the UK. The World Health Organisation (2014) reports that CVD accounted for 17.5 million deaths in 2012. According to the Office for National Statistics (2013) circulatory diseases, including heart disease and strokes, were the cause of 28% of all deaths in England & Wales during the year 2013. Deaths due to atherosclerosis are expected to rise in the UK due to the rising elderly population and obesity epidemic, thus treatments that can reverse the atherosclerotic process will be of benefit to many millions of patients.
Nonmodifiable risk factors associated with coronary artery disease include age, gender, family history, and ethnic background. Modifiable risk factors include smoking, obesity, elevated serum lipid levels, limited physical activity, stress, and hypertension (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2010). M.C’s family history of CAD, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are leading
While some of us do not experience having any kind of cardiovascular diseases, there are others who have to go through the complications of having one of them. Not only do people have exposure to having a cardiovascular disease, but there are different kinds of them that can affect different areas of your body. For example, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (stroke), peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart disease are the six different types of CVDs.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is described as a collective term for any disease of the heart and its network of vessels composed of arteries, veins and capillaries. These vessels are essential for providing oxygen
For both men and women, IHD resulted in more Australian death than any other single cause (Nichols et al., 2015). From 2011-2012, 22% of Australian adults had CVD, while in 2013-2014 11% of all hospitalisations where attributed to CVD. In 2012, CVD was the underlying cause of 30% of all deaths (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). Nichols et al. (2015) stated that IHD was the leading cause of death for aboriginal and torres strait islander (ATSI) people, with a death rate from AMI 2.5 times higher than the general population. IHD is among the top four leading causes of death for people 35 years and older, accounting for 6% of deaths aged 35-44 years old, and 19% of deaths 95 years and older (Nichols et al.,
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with conditions of atherosclerotic (e.g. coronary heart disease [CHD] and stroke) origin representing roughly 80% of all cardiovascular (CV) death (Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B editors. World Health Organization, Geneva 2011). In the U.S. alone, the cost of CVD and stroke is staggering with more than $320 billion (U.S. dollars) in both direct and indirect cost (Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. Circulation. 2015). In attempts to change the current trajectory of CVD, considerable efforts have focused on reducing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet and exercise, and
There are many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, race, family history whereas modifiable risk factors include smoking (active & passive), obesity, fatty foods with
Cardiovascular diseases are any types of disease that affect the cardiovascular system in a body. This falls under a degenerative disease because it is a degeneration of the function and the composition of the cardiovascular system. Heart attacks, arrhythmia, valve problems, and stroke are all cardiovascular diseases.