Cardiovascular Disease ( Cvd )

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Background and Literature Review Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) The phrase cardiovascular disease encompasses all ailments involving the conditions of the heart as well as those of the blood vessels. The major types of CVD prevalent in Australia are coronary heart disease and stroke, together with heart failure/cardiomyopathy. One of the leading causes of mortality in Australia today is cardiovascular disease (CVD) with one in every six Australians affected by the disease resulting in more than 3.7 million people listed as sufferers. The prevalence of contracting CVD increases with age as demonstrated by 35% of Australians whose ages range from 55 to 64 years reported to have a long term CVD condition. The incidence increases to 62% for …show more content…

There are also other important risk factors involved with men experiencing higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) than women. The risk of contracting CVD is increased in men whose first degree blood relative has suffered incidence of CVD before the age of 55 years and the same prevails in women whose first degree blood relative has suffered CVD before the age of 65 years. In addition, some ethnic groups exhibit higher rates of CVD than others [5]. There is a tendency for modifiable risk factors to have a noticeable result on CVD prevalence in the community. The relative impact of the disease and injury on the population in Australia 2003, defined 12 risk elements linked to CVD which if brought together would provide answers to 69% of these relative impacts [6]. High blood pressure and high cholesterol ranked highest as the largest contributor. Other contributors come in the nature of lack of physical activities, high body mass, use of tobacco products, and low consumption of fruits and vegetables [4]. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are summarised as below: Table1 – Modifiable Risk Factors for CVD[4] Behavioural factors Biomedical factors Tobacco smoking High blood pressure insufficient physical activity High blood cholesterol Dietary behaviour Overweight and obesity Excessive alcohol consumption depression Blood Pressure

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