Cardiovascular System And The Heart Rate

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Cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system responds quickly to the changes from resting to a steady state exercise. The heart rate after the initial start to the steady state exercise the heart rate levels off, and stays at a constant level. The cardiovascular system increases the stroke volume; this means that the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart from each contraction of the left ventricle, this means that a greater volume of blood can hold a greater amount of oxygen when transporting it around the body. The vessels in the body also respond to the steady state exercise, by them dilating in the working muscles this allows a greater amount of blood to flow through, but it also allows the vessels to become closer to the muscles to allow a shorter diffusion pathway. Like the heart rate the blood pressure also levels off after it has increased from resting, and stays at a constant rate, but when the exercise session has finished the heart rate and blood pressure decreases rapidly.

The heart rate levelling off can be represented on the graph: The heart rate levels off during exercise because the working muscles are receiving the correct amount of oxygen, this causes equilibrium. The equilibrium is created as the muscles that require the oxygen to be used to create ATP which is being brought by the blood at a steady rate at which it can be used; therefore, this balance allows the blood to be pumped at a continuous rate as the oxygen demand is fulfilled.
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