Ciara Dennehy 13019511
1. Working Title
The area of study I am going to be investigating will look at celebrity endorsement, and the affects of celebrity endorsement on consumer behaviour. I am also going to be looking at celebrity endorsement and the affect it has on consumption in the retail industry.
2. Main Research Question
Does Celebrity Endorsement Influence Consumer Behaviour and Purchasing Decisions?
3. Example Relevant sub-questions
• Examples of when consumers have been influenced by a certain celebrity or icon, to determine the consumption of a product.
• How celebrity endorsement has affected sales statistically through the use of a marketing campaign
• The use of controversial individuals being used for a campaign
• How celebrity image transforms brand identity and brand image
4. Aims of dissertation
• Defining ‘celebrity endorsement’
• Research how sales have directly related to a certain celebrity or icon wearing a similar styled item of clothing
• Research the use of celebrities in campaigns to determine the sales after the campaign is launched.
• Use secondary research methods to find quantitative statistics of examples of companies who have proved celebrity endorsement inflicted sales.
• The affects of social media when brands are identified on celebrities/fashion icons.
• E-marketing – how celebrities can promote and advertise a brand
• How marketing has adapted in recent years due to the use of the internet and social media
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This bond that is created between the viewer and a celebrity helps understand the effectiveness that endorsements have where marketers have failed. The celebrity builds character in the eyes of the public and that character carries on into the product he is endorsing, and even though a part of the persuasion has to exist in the product itself, but a celebrity uses his status and the character he has built to gain credibility and likeability among the target audience. This character the celebrity transfers to the product is known as the “meaning “(2). The transfer of the meaning to the product goes through three stages. The first stage is in finding the celebrity with the desired meaning that they want to carry to the product this requires casting from the wide world of celebrity endorsers. The second stage is choosing which celebrity embodies the meaning the marketing campaign requires for the product, this stage is subject to expense restraints and availability. After deciding on an endorser stage three is the most complicated stage as in this step the endorser has to be able to transfer that meaning into the product, they have to make this meaning “available to the consumer in a material form”(2), this stage allows the consumer to accept the meaning they are given and accept the product and you use is a tool to build their own character. These three steps not only
You are in the role of a researcher employed by a marketing magazine and have been asked to investigate a number of promotional activities that may form the basis of future articles in editions of the magazine.
The literature on Akhtar et al. (2016) has highlighted celebrities have the greater effect on customer purchase intention through celebrity endorsement and sponsorship. More specifically, companies chose celebrity endorsement and celebrity sponsorship as their marketing strategy also shown an increase in sales reports on both products and services (Akhtar et al., 2016).The literature on Akhtar et al. (2016) has highlighted celebrities have the greater effect on customer purchase intention through celebrity endorsement and sponsorship. More specifically, companies chose celebrity endorsement and celebrity sponsorship as their marketing strategy also shown an increase in sales reports on both products and services (Akhtar et al., 2016).The literature
The statistic that I chose to research in “Little Girls or Little Women? The Disney Princess Effect” by Stephanie Hanes was that, “The marketing group NPD Fashionworld
Use of celebrities in advertising is no new concept, companies have used celebrities to sell everything from cars, to moisturizer. Celebrities, due to our consumerist and media based society, are the ideal salespeople. (Wright, 2015) PETA’s campaign team understands that celebrity can help sell products and put a spin on that marketing technique by using celebrity endorsement in order to sell their ideals, and a vegetarian/vegan lifestyle. Celebrity endorsement can help companies and non-profit organizations such as PETA to gain public recognition, and to make a strong impression on viewers and consumers, so that they will remember the product, or in PETA’s case, consumers will remember the ideals and advocacy that the organization is promoting. (Fleck, Korchia, & Le Roy, 2012) It’s also apparent that a celebrities attractiveness has something to do with it as well. Fleck, Korchia, and Le Roy also state that “A celebrity spokesperson's physical attractiveness has a positive impact on brand recall, attitude toward the brand and purchasing intent”
The article suggests that money and exposure are key reasons for celebrities to tie their name to a large company that may not be healthy for children, for this reason; one questions the qualities of the celebrity. For example, one can question qualities of a famous athlete that endorses Sprite because soda leads to dehydration and athletes’ focus is often staying hydrated. Next, businesses use celebrities as a marketing strategy to gain attention for the product that the company wants endorsed. This causes the business to spend more money on more influential people leading to the assumption that celebrities are endorsing products that they do not actually use on a daily basis for money. After one is able to think critically about the logistics of the celebrity endorsing the product one can find that it is most likely about being paid or reaching a new
Celebrity endorsement is possibly the most successful form of advertising. The fact that a celebrity approves of a product is often enough for people to get on board. Advertisements create a false life or image. Chiat says in his article: “Advertising--including movies, TV, and music videos--presents to us a world that is not our world but rather a collection of images and ideas created for the purpose of selling” (Chiat 212) .There is no better way to sell a false life or idea than to have a celebrity sell it for you.
An example that celebrity advertisement being manipulative is that if a consumer is going to buy a chocolate bar but there is many different options. The consumer is indecisive but when he/she is looking at her options a memory will trigger and a celebrity will come into thought and then it leads the thought about brand A. That the consumer will have an increased chance of buying brand A because of the celebrity without even thinking about it. That the consumer didn’t think about the product’s quality but about the celebrity only. Even though a consumer can be manipulated this way the advertising companies don’t have to completely get rid of celebrities entirely out of advertisements. There are other ways in implementing celebrities into advertisements while revealing the product’s quality. Let’s take Snickers for example they were able to showcase a celebrity and reveal the quality of the product. That most of their advertisements follow the formula of someone being grumpy then they eat a snickers turning them into a celebrity. That the Snickers advertisement shows that if the consumer eats the Snickers they feel as good as a celebrity. Thus showcasing the celebrity without making the celebrity the face of the
The author believes that is is not right to use celebrities to advertise, and misleads consumers, however, it is the consumer’s responsibility to research a product before buying, and not just buy it for seeing one commercial for
Nowadays, people turn on their televisions and mostly, every commercial includes someone famous using it and exclaiming how much they love it. Sue Jozui in her excerpt, argues that using celebrities for advertising should be boycotted and laws should be created against it. The author supports her position by first, explaining how “this kind of marketing is misleading and insults the intelligence of the audience”(Jozui). The author’s purpose is to point out how easily people are being persuaded into buying unnecessary products. The author displays an aggravated tone for concerned buyers. Jozui claims that using celebrities is misleading and the products should be boycotted; however, portraying famous people in advertisements is a great strategy for marketing.
Celebrities and consumers alike have evolved thoroughly throughout the years, which has led to them overlapping quite exponentially. Personalities are interlinked majorly with consumers since without the other; the other would cease to exist. This is evident as celebrities livelihood relies completely upon the consumer culture of citizens, which is what makes them famous, and gives them that celebrity role. Whilst this is apparent, the links involve
Laura and her boss Isabel have the garden variety marketing problem in the age of ubiquitous media advertising; how to reach the customer and sell your product amidst "ad-zapping devices and a decrease in consumer attention spans" (USAToday.com. October 10, 2006. PP. 1). Bob Gamgort, President of MasterFoods indicates that "the average American is exposed to 650 advertising messages a day" (Peebles, Ellen. October 2003 P. 32), however; that number may be drastically low, as a second estimate pegs the figure at 3,000 to 5,000 a day (USAToday.com. October 10, 2006. PP. 2). Regardless of which figure is correct, Bryant's marketing team must find innovative ways to compete in an ad frenzied environment; leading to the question of the efficacy of Laura's product placement/ celebrity endorser idea.
Celebrity endorsements are one of the most famous methods of marketing used today. Celebrity endorsers are being used in about 25% of all the advertisements that we can see on the television. Marketers are investing large sums of money to have a contract with the celebrities as they believe that celebrities can affect the chances of success of a product. (Erica Weintraub Austina*, 2008) Kiakati
Celebrity endorsement is a billion dollar industries today (Kambitsis et al., 2002) with companies signing deals with celebrities hoping that they can help them stand out from the clutter and give them a unique and relevant position in the mind of the consumer. According to Solomon (2002), the reasons for using celebrity endorsement involves its potential to create awareness, positive feelings towards their advertising and brand. Research has shown that celebrity endorsement can have an impact on the consumer’s attention, recall, evaluations and purchase intentions (Atkin and Block, 1993), Celebrity endorsement is a widely used tactic in marketing and much research
Furthermore there are other researches as well which suggest that the approach of using a celebrity to endorse a product can not be viewed as a general practice of using any celebrity for any product endorsement. Pornpitakpan (2003), while discussing match-up hypothesis, describes the results of a study by Erdogen et al (2001) which suggests that "British advertising agency managers considered various criteria like celebrity- target audience match, celebrity-product match, overall image of the celebrity, cost of hiring the celebrity, celebrity trustworthiness, controversy risk, celebrity familiarity, celebrity prior endorsements, celebrity likeability, risk of celebrity overshadowing the brands, celebrity expertise, celebrity profession and celebrity physical attractiveness". A match between the target market and the endorser is important for effectively transmitting right message to target audience. For example, the advertisements which are produced by Pepsi, are mostly targeted for youths and so the celebrity endorsers that they use in their advertisements are young personalities. The match up hypothesis goes true for the multiple celebrity advertising as well. A good example of this is the Pulse Polio campaign taken up in India to eradicate the polio