Cervical Cancer: Gynecologic Carcinoma

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INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer is a typically slow-growing type of gynecologic carcinogenesis caused predominantly by persistent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), most commonly the high-risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18.3 Cervical cancer typically originates in the transformation zone of the cervix, where there is a junction of ectocervix and endocervix. The most common type of cervical carcinoma is squamous cell carcinoma and makes up 70-80% of cervical cancers. This type of cervical cancer occurs in the squamous cells of the ectocervix. The second most common type is an adenocarcinoma, occurring in glandular cells of the endocervix, and makes up 10-15% of cervical cancers. Cervical cancers can also be a mixture of dysplastic squamous cells and glandular cells; this type of carcinoma is termed adenosquamous carcinoma and makes up 1-2% of cervical cancers. The final type of cervical cancer is associated with HPV-6 rather than HPV-16 or HPV-18. It is termed verrucous squamous carcinoma and is very rare.5, 6…show more content…
The opening of the cervix is termed the cervical os. The internal part of the cervical os is termed the internal os and opens into the uterus. The external part of the cervical os is termed the external os and opens into the vagina. The cervix can be divided into two sections based on location. The cervical canal is termed the endocervix and is lined with glandular cells of columnar epithelium. The portion of the cervix that descends downward into the vagina is termed the ectocervix and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The area where the glandular cells meets the squamous cells is termed the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). As women age, the SCJ recedes back into the endocervical canal as columnar cells undergo squamous metaplasia. Right next to the SCJ is the area termed the transformation zone. This transformation zone is where HPV has its negative, carcinogenic

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