Chapter 1.Introduction.

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This chapter provides some background information relating to the core of the thesis.

Wireless networking is an emerging technology that allows users to access information and services electronically, regardless of their geographic position. The use of wireless communication between mobile users has become increasingly popular due to recent performance advancements in computer and wireless technologies. This has led to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing is expected to see increasingly widespread use and
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Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and communicates with others over either radio or infrared channels. Figure 1.2 shows a simple ad hoc network with three nodes.

Figure 1.1: Infrastructure Network.

Figure 1.2: Ad Hoc Network.
1.1.1. Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of mobile hosts that carry out basic networking functions like packet forwarding, routing, and service discovery without the help of an established infrastructure [1]. Nodes of an ad hoc network rely on one another in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. An ad hoc network uses no centralized administration. This ensures that the network will not cease functioning just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of the range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter and leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops are generally needed to reach other nodes. Every node in an ad hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus, every node acts both as a host and as a router. The topology of ad hoc networks varies with time as nodes move, join or leave the network. This topological instability requires a routing protocol to run on each node to create and maintain routes among the nodes [21].

1.1.1. Mobile Ad hoc Networks’ Usages
Wireless ad-hoc
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