Commercialization Of The IVF Industry Case Review

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Commercialization of the IVF industry has increased the use of in vitro-produced embryos in the cattle industry. However, the efficiency of producing in vitro embryos is low, so in vivo-produced embryos remain superior. This review focuses on the issues with in vitro-produced embryos. Normal cell communication and transcription, as well as morphology appear disrupted when placed in culture media. Serum appears to cause changes to embryos. Embryo metabolism is altered when cultured, as nutrient uptake increases and growth accelerates, resulting in increased birth weight in calves. Changes in embryo physiology can lead to early embryonic death, or can negatively impact health later in life. Although improvements can be made to in vitro …show more content…

Since then, the cattle IVF industry has recognized the potential for using this technology for infertile cows, cows which have poor ovulatory responses from superstimulation, or deceased cows (14). However, this method is more expensive than in vivo-produced embryos in North America and therefore not used often (14). In 2011, the use of in vitro embryos increased 20% in Brazil (14). With 53,019 ovum pickups performed, there was an average of 15 oocytes collected, resulting in an average of 6 embryos (14). Overall, there were 318,116 embryos, which accounted for 86% of all in vitro-produced embryos in the world (14). Generally, most embryos are in vivo-produced from either artificial insemination or an embryo flush. Although cost is a factor for this, the reasons discussed in this review also contribute to the lower use of in vitro embryos. Generally, in vitro-produced embryos are used for cows which are infertile, have a poor response to superstimulation, or deceased. The process begins with ovum pickup using transvaginal ultrasound aspiration. The ovary and individual immature follicles are seen on a monitor using ultrasound and then collected with an aspiration needle via the vagina. The follicular fluid along with the immature oocytes is collected into a collection cup with a filter. Recovery of the oocytes

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