Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes

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Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes

As for organisms in the world from humans to the smallest microbe, they directly reflect upon biodiversity, in respect to the appearance, size and expression. The reason behind this is caused by the genetic material found in each and every cell that composes each organism. Given that there are two types of cell organizations found in life, comparison of both ‘eukaryote’ and ‘prokaryote’ genomes will provide a better understanding for such diversity. ‘karyote’ refers to the nucleus, and also ‘pro’ means ‘absence’ and ‘eu’ means ‘presence’. Therefore the words prokaryote and eukaryote reflect upon the individual cell organization. In contrast, the both organizations
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Surrounding it, is the double membrane which is called the nuclear envelope. This holds the genetic material and isolates them from the cytoplasm. Nuclear spores are placed to aid other molecules to move across the envelope. The rest of the genetic components of a eukaryotic cell could be found in other organelles such as, rhybozomes, mitochondria and Chloroplast. But the genomes found in such organelles shows similarities to ones found in prokaryotes (I.e. Circular DNA). In addition to the main chromosome, genetic materials are found in independent forms such as ‘Plasmids’ which are seen in most of bacteria cells as well as eukaryotic organisms in their cytoplasts (I.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). Furthermore, plasmids rest on the cytoplasm.

Genome Structure and Architecture Genomic structures of both the organizations are similar to certain extent. Bauman (2004) suggested that Prokaryotes keep the main portion of their DNA with other closely-associating molecules such as Proteins and RNA as a chromosome or two, whilst a eukaryotic cell contains more than one chromosome in their genomes. Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from its typical prokaryotic counterparts by having linear DNA rather than circular DNA (Russell.P 1996).And also eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of DNA and globular proteins called ‘Histones’. The eukaryotic genome structure could be illustrated in the following way; DNA is filled into
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