Complement System Vs Lectin Pathway

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The complement system is a part of the immune system that is established in the blood and functions to keep the body healthy. The complement system consists of more than thirty proteins that flow throughout the blood and attack bacteria, viruses, and any foreign invader found throughout the body. More specifically, the complement system helps pathogen cells commit apoptosis, have inflammation, lyse, and opsonization. There are nine major complement proteins, which are C1-C9, that act a little different in each of the three pathways: the alternative, classical, and the lectin complement pathway. The difference between the lectin and the classical pathway is that in the lectin pathway, C1q is not involved but instead a mannan binding protein …show more content…

When the activity of the GPI-anchored proteins is reduced the mutation is then able to develop into the dominant gene in the creation of red blood cells. The complement system then recognizes the red blood cells as foreign cells causing the complement system to attack the mutation and when this occurs, red blood cells are destroyed faster than the normal 120 day life span, which leads to the deficiency of red blood cells and all the nutrients that they carry. In PNH, the red blood cells are missing two of the complement regulating proteins that are needed for GPI-anchored proteins to attach them to the cell membrane and since the two proteins are missing a lot of the nutrients and are in a deficient amount, it can lead to hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, aplastic anemia, blood clots, myelodysplasia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and even …show more content…

These include medications that help to slow the breakdown of the red blood cell which is the most effective treatment of PNH. Bone marrow transplantations are another method for treating PNH. The least effective treatment is the monitoring of the red blood cells without taking any medication or having transfusions. However, when Soliris, a complement inhibitor, and vitamin supplements are taken, the breakdown of red blood cells in PNH is greatly reduced. Side effects of using this drug include bright light sensitivity, a burning pain when you excrete urine, nausea, vomiting, a high fever with flu like symptoms, back or neck stiffness, headaches, purple spots on the skin, and a possibility of a seizure. Soliris falls in a group of medication called monoclonal antibodies which are antibodies that are identical clones of the parent cells made by immune cells. Soliris blocks the actions of the immune system that helps to destroy red blood cells causing PNH. Although medications may seem to be the best idea, a person may also try to undergo a blood transfusion as well as take natural supplements such as folic acid and iron in order to prevent anemia while also taking blood thinners to help prevent

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