4. There are other types of reagents used to determine what type of biomolecule a substance is. For example, copper ions present in Benedict’s reagent reacts with the free end of any reducing sugars, such as glucose, when heated. Originally blue in color, these copper ions are reduced by the sugar, and produce an orange-red colored precipitate. Alternatively, iodine-potassium iodide (IKI) may also be used when working with starch. IKI contains special tri-iodine ions which interact with the coiled structure of a starch
The purpose of this lab was to test different substances using various procedures to see what biomolecules were present and ultimately find out what restaurant Anna Lyza had eaten at before she died. For the first control test, we used vegetable oil to test for lipids. So, if the solution does not contain lipids, it does not become translucent when placed onto a paper bag square and held up to a light. So, it is a negative result. However, in the presence of lipids, the solution will become translucent when placed onto a paper bag square and held up to a light. Therefore in this case, the result is positive. On the other hand, we used albumin egg to test for proteins in another control test. If the solution does not contain proteins, it will not experience any color change and so it is a negative result. When there are proteins existing in the solution, it will turn bluish/purplish and for this reason it is a positive result. Furthermore in the third control test, we used dextrose to test for simple carbohydrates such as glucose. If the solution does not contain simple carbohydrates, it will not undergo any color change and will remain a blue color. So, it is a negative result in this circumstance. If there are simple carbohydrates present in the solution, the solution will turn reddish and so the result is positive. For the last control test, we used starch solution to test
All living things contain some form of organic macromolecules including: Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. All of these organic molecules are alike in the sense that is they are made up of bonded elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and to smaller quantities nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The macromolecules each contain large long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms and often consists of repeating smaller molecules bonded together in a repeating pattern (polymers). To test whether a specific solid white substance is a protein is simple due to the unique chains found in the respective type of macromolecule. To test if the substance is a carbohydrate, two tests could be performed on separate samples of the object. First,
The most common macromolecules found in living organisms are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Briefly, the meaning of macromolecules is that they normally contain two or more molecules in them and their main functions are to store energy, information and much more. Most foods are known to be combinations of macromolecules. While some of these compounds can be detected by taste tests, many cannot. Scientists then use certain tests to determine the presence of macromolecules.
Colorimetric assay is a process of determining a concentration of a solution based on absorbance of light. The purpose of this lab is to determine if the Bradford assay is an accurate way to determine an unknown concentration of two samples of protein. The Bradford assay is done by measuring wavelength of light passing through a cuvette filled with Bradford dye and concentrations of PBS and proteins. After the cuvettes are mixed they are placed into a spectrophotometer to measure wavelength. The wavelength given will be used to plot a standard curve based on concentration (x-axis) and wavelength (y-axis). The standard curve is then used to measure an educated guess on the concentrations of unknown protein concentrations. We hypothesized that if we use the Bradford assay and colorimetric spectrophotometry we can determine an accurate concentration of two unknown concentrations of proteins. The results of this lab failed to reject our hypothesis based on accurate measurements of protein concentrations. The standard curves are drawn with a linear increasing slope. The Bradford assay is an accurate way to demine the concentration of an unknown concentration.
A cell, the building block of all living organisms, is composed of four fundamental biomolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, sugars and lipids. Proteins provide a vast amount of functions cells such as they serve as enzymes, provide structural support to cells, and act as antibodies. Reagents are used to spark a chemical reaction. The reagent used to detect protein traces in a substance is Biuret’s. Biuret’s will turn purple if proteins are present and blue if they are none. Biuret’s copper particles, have a charge of +2, are diminished to a charge of +1 when peptide bonds, which are in proteins, are present, creating the color change. Polysaccharides, which are carbohydrates, are most notably known to provide energy to the body, but they also help in breaking down fatty acids. Iodine is the reagent used to determine whether a substance has starch in it. The iodine/starch complex has energy levels that are only for retaining unmistakable light, giving the complex its extraordinarily dark black-blue shade. If there is no starch found, iodine will remain its natural yellowish-brownish color, but if starch is present, iodine will turn blue-black. Monosaccharides, which are sugars, like polysaccharides, provide the body with energy. To detect monosaccharides, the reagent, Benedict’s, is used. Benedict’s reagent is added to a test tube, then it is placed in
During that time we learned various steps and methods to purifying protein. We segwayed into enzymes and their ability to catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy. We also learned the different classifications that specific enzymes depending on the reactions they catalyze. For example, enzymes that are involved in catalyzing hydrolysis reactions are known as hydrolases. Lastly, we looked at polysaccharides for short-term energy storage and their interactions through glycosidic bondage. Nucleotides were also mentioned and their involvement in DNA and RNA. Concluding the course, we observed lipids and their involvement with long-term energy storage. With all that we have learned, I now reflect and appraise the role that biochemistry plays in my everyday life as well as from a global point of view.
B.Background: Some important terms and definitions that would be helpful in this investigation would be macromolecules, simple sugars, starch, protein, lipids, and SPAM. Macromolecules are a large biomolecule,
To test enzyme activity, an experiment was conducted in the laboratory. In this experiment, the enzyme Amylase was chosen because it assists disassemble the polysaccharide starch. Starch is the main energy storage in plants. Human cells need the energy of stored in the starch to be introduced in the form of Maltose. Maltose is a simple sugar that can be used to generate the energy needed to power cellular work
There are four different types of macromolecules Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates They are in everything that we need to live So now let’s break them down and see what’s inside Macromolecules are polymers that are made of monomers That are made of monomers, that are made of C, H, N, O, and P Macromolecules are here Lipids are made of fatty acids Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides Proteins are made of amino acids Carbohydrates are sugar, sugar
Proteins are complex macromolecules which are essential for life of all organisms. They are manufactured through the processes of transcription and translation, which take place inside the cells. More specifically, they are synthesised by ribosomes (Shakhnovich, 2007). Figure 1.1 shows the overall processes that can occur in making a fully functionally active protein. (Ghelis, 2012). Functional properties of certain proteins include, but is not limited to: structural composition of the cytoskeleton in cells, catalysing biochemical reactions and hormones such as insulin to regulate blood sugar concentration (O’Connor & Adams, 2014). Proteins must therefore have a specific 3-dimentional shape to allow them to carry out these functions. If their
There are four types of biomolecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are large chains of sugar found in food and living tissues. This includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. They have the same ratio of hydrogen and oxygen that water has, 2:1. They are broken down to release energy in the animal body. Lipids are any organic compounds that are fatty acids and don’t dissolve in water but do in organic solvents. Fatty acids can be found in natural oils, waxes, and steroids. Proteins are macromolecules that do everything in the cell. They are tools and machines that make things happen. Nucleic acids are long strands of nucleotides, and function primarily in storage and transmission of genetic information. There are two types of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. DNA is the genetic material of all cellular organisms, and RNA sends out messages from the information that is held in the DNA.